This page is dedicated
to John Gillespie RAAMC, an 8th Field Ambulance medical crewman aboard
an RAAF helicopter, who was killed carrying out a DUSTOFF mission in the
Long Hai Hills on 17th April 1971, after the US Army had withdrawn its
DUSTOFF helicopter from Nui Dat, in the run-up to withdrawal of all
allied forces from South Vietnam.
is the name given to
helicopter ambulances used in wartime casualty evacuation, the name is
synonymous with the rapid evacuation of casualties from the battlefield
under all battle and adverse weather conditions. The first DUSTOFF
in Vietnam arrived on 26th April 1962 from Fort Meade, Maryland, USA.
This unit, the 57th Medical Detachment (Air Ambulance) with 5 Bell UH-1A
"Huey" helicopters, was to service the 8000 United States
troops then on the ground in Vietnam. The unit was stationed at Nha
Trang close to the US 8th Field Hospital.
During November 1962 the 57th's
Commanding Officer, Capt John Tamperelli, was ordered to remove and hand
over the starter generators from his 5 DUSTOFF
helicopters so that they
might be used as spare parts in faulty slick ships, despite protests,
this left the only air evacuation unit in Vietnam unable to operate from
17th November to 15th December 1962. On 15th December only one generator
was returned to the unit and the remaining four of the aircraft remained
Tamperelli faced many obstacles,
General Stilwell attempted to wrest control of the unit from the US Army
Medical Corps and allocate it to the US Army Transportation Corps, to
remove the Red Cross from the aircraft and reassign them as general
On 16th January 1963, Tamperelli was
ordered to move his unit to Ton Son Nuit Air Force Base at Saigon, after
a disastrous battle took place in the Mekong Delta. The ARVN 7th
Infantry Division, comprising 400 South Vietnamese troops with 50 US
advisors had attempted an assault on a Viet Cong stronghold, only to
have 4 CH-21 Shawnee helicopters and a new UH-1B
helicopter shot down. Three Americans and 65 South Vietnamese were
killed. The 57th was too far away at Nha Trang to respond.
During February 1963 Tamperelli handed
command of the 57th over to Major Lloyd Spencer and, on 11th March 1963,
the 57th was re-equipped with 5 new UH-1B's, which were readied for
service in a record 12 days after arrival in Vietnam. April saw the
assignment of 2 of the 5 helicopters to Pleiku to cover II Corps area.
US Marine helicopters covered I Corps with H-34's. The three helicopters
left at Ton Son Nuit covered both III and IV Corps area. All Corps areas
were now covered by helicopter ambulances.
The 57th had no radio call sign of its
own and Spencer noticed the vacant call sign DUST OFF in the Signal
Operations Instructions. He unofficially assigned the call sign to the
unit and sought to make it official. During late 1963 the National
Security Agency allocated the name DUST OFF to the 118th Airmobile
Company, the 57th fought to retain the name and the 118th refused to use
it. It was at this point in history that the call sign DUSTOFF, denoting
aero-medical evacuation of the wounded from the battlefield, was set in
On 11th January 1964, Major Charles L
Kelly took up his post as the third Commanding Officer of the 57th, he
was tough, stubborn, willing to take on the top brass and deeply
committed to the DUSTOFF concept. One of his first moves was to relocate
the two helicopters in Pleiku to Soc Trang, 100 kilometres south west of
Saigon, to service the Mekong Delta area. Crews were logging up over 100
hours a month, and logs were being incorrectly compiled, for fear of
excess hours groundings by flight surgeons. The unit, again under
pressure from General Stilwell to remove the Red Cross and become
general utility helicopters, was in for a significant fight. The
indefatigable Kelly was not to be beaten, he started flying night
evacuation missions and proved that his two aircraft could cover the
entire 20,000 square kilometres of the Mekong Delta on a 'milk run'.
Each night the aircraft covered 700 kilometres in little over 3 hours.
Kelly laid down the rules and adhered to them himself, there could be no
refusal to fly a mission, the wounded always came first.
On 7th June 1964, Kelly's 57th was
paid a farewell visit by Brig Gen Joseph Stilwell, prior to his return
to the US. Kelly presented him with a plaque with five red crosses on it
and the tail rotor numbers of each of his aircraft. He said to Stilwell,
"Here, General, You wanted my goddamned aircraft, take them."
1st July saw Kelly hovering near the
ground picking up casualties on a hot LZ, his ship had taken numerous
hits and he was repeatedly advised by ground troops to abort the
mission, he refused, remarking, "When I have your wounded."
Quite suddenly the aircraft pitched up, nosed over to the right, and
crashed. Kelly had been shot through the heart with a bullet which came
through the open cargo door. He was posthumously awarded the US
Distinguished Service Cross, the Vietnamese Military Order of the Medal
of Vietnam and the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm. He was the
149th American to lose his life in Vietnam and, such was the level of
emotion surrounding his death, the name DUSTOFF and the service for
which he had given his life became cemented into the history of the war
in Vietnam. Never again was DUSTOFF
to be under threat of disbandment.
DUSTOFF would continue to fly by Kelly's creed:
"No compromise. No
rationalisation. No Hesitation. Fly the mission. Now!"
On 13th September 1967,
45th Medical Company (Air Ambulance) was established at Long Binh. The
45th had the latest UH-1H,
fitted with an AVCO L-13 engine giving 27 percent more power than the
L-11 of the UH-1D.
It was also 9 percent more fuel efficient that the UH-1D giving a
greater range. 45th played a vital role in the success of Australian
operations in Phuoc Tuy Province, where one ship was permanently
stationed at 8th Field Ambulance (Red Earth), Nui Dat. The DUSTOFF
carried a US crew of three (AC, pilot and crew chief) and 8th Field
Ambulance provided the medical crewman.
The United States Army DUSTOFF
aircraft was withdrawn from permanent service at 8th Field Ambulance,
Nui Dat, during November of 1970 and replaced with an armed RAAF slick
Several of the medics who had trained and flown with 45th refused
to fly with the RAAF whilst the aircraft were fitted with guns, which
the RAAF refused to remove; similarly the RAAF refused to apply the
traditional Red Cross to the aircraft which was a demand made of it by
There was a period of stalemate, during which RAAF medics
were used or aircraft were tasked without medics, until the 'old guard'
returned to Australia, and new medics could be trained.
The following Royal Australian Army
Medical Corps personnel were trained by, and flew with, the United
States 45th Medical Company (Air Ambulance) at Long Binh, South Vietnam,
during the Vietnam War:
Tom Hardwick MM
For More Information Contact: Glen Mylne
Copyright © 1997 Glen Mylne