is page 6 of 7 pages of FAQ
||In WW1 Foo was a mythical
and mysterious little "man" who turned up nearly
everywhere (especially where there was a bit of nonsense going
He was shown (usually) as a
little bald headed man peering over a stone wall, with the simple
inscription "Foo was here".
He was chalked on the side of
railway carriages, appeared in probably every camp that the 1st AIF
served in and generally made his presence felt.
reappeared in WW2. Later in WW2 (particularly with RAAF) he took on a more devilish appearance.
Of course we're sure that you once knew
A bit of a lad by the name of "Foo".
He's the joker who's been on the
And written his name in every
But now his scheming's all come to
For as you see Foo has been
How he was caught is not quite clear,
But it was in a "Waaafery",
or there quite near.
Ah ! But this is no time to sing and shout
For Foo has just this minute got out,
And just as one would expect to find,
Foo has gone and left his card behind!
- In WW2 the Yanks
"pinched" the basic idea of Foo, renamed him "Kilroy"
and helped spread him around the world.
- Foo was not worried, he took it
in good spirit and in the best traditions of good Allies working
- Unlike Foo who specialised in
appearing on buildings, railway carriages & such-like, Kilroy "peeks
out of pockets and necklines, from behind lapels and neckties,
over lampshades, picture frames, etc."
- The picture (left) shows Kilroy in a
man's pocket, over his lapel and behind a tie. He is also peeking
over the neckline of a woman's dress. Below is his more normal
image as chalked by the GIs.
|There was one person who led or
participated in every combat, training or occupation operation during
WW II and the Korean War. This person could always be depended on.
GI's began to consider him the "super GI." He was one who
always got there first or who was always there when they left. I am,
of course, referring to "Kilroy". Somehow, this
simple graffiti "Kilroy Was Here" captured the imagination of GI's everywhere they went.
The scribbled cartoon face and words showed up everywhere - worldwide.
- It is reported at Kilroy has gone
to the moon. Apparently he must have snuck onto a moon-lander
because "Kilroy Was Here" is recorded in the dust of the
was an ubiquitous piece of popular culture graffiti often seen in
the United Kingdom during and shortly after World War II.
an extension of the Foo/Kilroy character.
The graffiti consisted of a
cartoon of a small, round head with a long nose poking over the
top of a wall, with a complaint about shortages written
It was widely in use
by the late part of the war and in the immediate post-war years,
with slogans ranging from the simple "What, no bread?" or
"Wot, no char?" to the plaintive.
One sighting, on the
side of a British 1st Airborne Division glider in Operation Market
Garden, had the complaint "Wot, no engines?"
As rationing became
less common, so did the joke; while the cartoon is occasionally
sighted today as "Kilroy", "Chad" and his
complaints have long fallen from popular use.
Partly from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chad_%28graffiti%29"
is an Alice pack?
ALICE pack. Officially (All-purpose Lightweight
Individual Carrying Equipment, previously called webbing). Originally an American
term for the webbing,
"Alice" became common usage in the Australian Army for the
metal frame that carries the equipment a Digger humps through the scrub.
I don't think it was ever an officially recognised term for the metal
soldiers of WW1 believe that it was "the war to end all
No. That is a fallacy that started
well after the war. H G Wells wrote a book in 1914 called "The
war that will end war". It is one of his lesser works and apart
from the name is almost forgotten.
soon turned his attention to inflammatory and often contradictory
politics. He preached Socialism whenever he could, though he later
rejected it; he stood for women's rights and abortion while he
cheated on his wives; he was a staunch supporter of World War I,
calling it "The War That Will End War," but found the
war-ravaged world he departed in 1946 more horrifying than any of
US President Woodrow Wilson used the term in a
speech in 1917. It was a term that came into common usage post war and usually in a derogatory
or anti-war sense.
soldiers of WW1 believe that it was all a bit of a lark and an
No. Another fallacy. It is
possible (even probable) that the first blokes to join the AIF did
so with little understanding of what was to follow and did so with a
false impression of quick victory and glory for all. However it is
impossible to believe that the later recruits, who having read the
casualty lists from Gallipoli, Fromelles and other early battles
could have been under any mis-apprehension about the serious nature
of the task.
They knew what the difficulties were, and the risks.
This is indicated by the fact that as the war dragged on and the
"butcher's bill" got higher so too was there was a
lessening of the numbers of eager recruits. These were the blokes
called "Fair Dinkums" because if they enlisted even after
seeing the casualty lists they must be "fair dinkum".
Sydney Milgate (below)
is but one example.
Milgate went ashore at ANZAC with the 7th Battalion. He was
last seen in the afternoon of the first day and is believed
to have been killed during a Turkish counter-attack. He was
His younger brother Sydney enlisted not
long after receiving news of Fred’s death; he served on
the Western Front and was killed in Belgium in 1917. AWM H06088
No. Can I say to the world that we
Australians and our sometimes forgotten trans-Tasman cousins the New
Zealanders do not make wars. We are a peace loving pair of nations. We
would much rather play cricket or football, go fishing, have a cold beer
and a hot steak off the BBQ. Anything but make war.
However, once put in a position where
we have to fight we borrow from the 42nd Battalion AIF, their Unit motto
CEDE NULLIS (Yield to none)
are "Bombay Bloomers"?
This was a nickname for Army issue
shorts as worn in tropical postings.
The design was based on a British
pattern with long and wide legs.
The British Army has done many
magnificent things but they are not famous for their fashion sense.
does the army say things backwards?
To avoid confusion. Lets take the
slouch hat for example. If you list it as a "khaki fur felt
hat" you need to read the entire name before you know that you are
talking about a hat and that it should be classified with other hats,
not with khakis (or car-keys), furs, or felts.
If you list it as a "hat khaki
fur felt" it is immediately obvious that you are talking about a hat, that
it should be listed and classified with other hats and the less
important details follow the main classification.
While this might seem pointless in
isolation it is vital when you consider the thousands of items that an
army uses and needs to keep track of.
is the difference between 'machine gun', sub-machine gun and 'machine carbine'?
||A carbine is a lighter, shorter version of a
rifle, usually single shot in the context of WW1 or WW2. Machine guns
are the full size, fully automatic fire guns like the Maxim, the Vickers, the Lewis and
more recently the GPMG M60.
Machine carbines are the
smaller, lighter weapons like the Thompson, the Sten and the Owen.
However the names 'sub-machine gun' and 'machine carbine' have now become almost interchangeable with
Image from an original WW2 British Army
Infantry Training Manual (Pamphlet Vol 1 No 21, 1944) on the
Machine Carbine which covers the Sten and Thompson. Dated
is an "automatic rifle"?
A rifle that is capable of reloading
itself after each round and firing another round, automatically.
Originally rifles were 'single shot', that is, manually reloaded after
every shot fired. They were replaced by rifles that were 'self loading'.
That means that after each shot the rifle reloads but does not fire
again until the trigger is depressed again. Automatic is a self loading
rifle that automatically fires another round and continues to do so
automatically while the trigger is
depressed and unused rounds remain in the magazine.
is a "gas operated rifle"?
Most self loading and automatic
weapons are gas operated. They use some of the gas created by the
explosion of the propellant in the round to reload the rifle. To do that
the gas is used, before the round exits the barrel, to push a spring
loaded rod back up a shaft to operate the shell ejection and re-loading mechanism.
Some machine carbines use the back
lash from the detonation of the propellant in the round to force the
mechanism back against a spring which then returns it to the firing
position, reloading another round as it does so. This is not
considered gas operated.
did the bayonet get it's name?
Bayonets were first used in
Bayonne in 1641. Supposedly, during a battle the soldiers ran out of ammunition,
stuck knives into the muzzles of their guns and charged the enemy.
|It is the slang name
for Puckapunyal, one of the oldest and most important Army bases
in Australia. Refer map for location.
This should not be confused with
"pukka", which is a British Army word for "well
presented" or "top notch". Sometimes used in a
derogatory way against a foppish, English upper class type who had
little respect or time for the "rankers".
Image from RAAC
Dad served with the P.B.I. I can't find a reference to that Unit. What
P.B.I is British and Australian Army
slang for "Poor Bloody Infantry". Many, many times over the
years the really dirty jobs, the "last stands", the "Save
The Nation" type jobs are handed to the only people who can do it.
The Infantry. Naval power is wonderful. Air support is great. The Gunners and the
Ginger Beers, the cooks and the cleaners, the suppliers and the
supporters, the planners and power brokers, the politicians and the
pundits all have their place. But when push comes to shove and the
bullets are going both ways, when there is a nasty little (or major) job
on and and
there is some dying to be done ............call up
the Infantry... the poor bloody Infantry.
NZ the poppy is an Anzac Day icon. In Aus it is a Remembrance Day icon.
||A French woman who
was about to promote the poppy — as a symbol of remembrance —
throughout the world, Madame E. Guérin, conceived the idea of
widows manufacturing artificial poppies in the devastated areas of
Northern France which then could be sold by veterans'
organisations worldwide for their own veterans and dependants as
well as the benefit of destitute French children.
Throughout 1920-21, Guérin and
her representatives approached veteran organisations' in the
United States, Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand and
urged them to adopt the poppy as a symbol of remembrance.
One of Guérin's
representatives, Colonel Alfred Moffatt, came to put the poppy
initiative to the New Zealand Returned Solders' Association (as
the RNZRSA was originally known) in September 1921 and an order
for some 350,000 small and 16,000 large silk poppies was duly
placed with Madame Guérin's French Children's League.
In common with veteran's organisations
in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, the RSA had intended to
hold its inaugural Poppy Appeal in association with Armistice Day 1921
(11 November 1921). However, the ship carrying the poppies from France
arrived in New Zealand too late for the scheme to be properly publicised
prior to Armistice Day, thereby forcing the RSA to postpone its Poppy
Campaign until the day prior to ANZAC Day 1922. Thus Poppy Day, as it
was immediately known, became uniquely associated with ANZAC Day,
whereas in Australia, as with the United Kingdom and Canada, the appeal
continued to be associated with Armistice Day (Remembrance Day).
In all, 245,059 small poppies were
sold for 1 shilling each and 15,157 larger versions of the flower
attracted two shillings each, netting the national association, after
all expenses, £13,166. Of that sum, £3,695 was sent to French
Children's League to help alleviate distress in the war-ravaged areas of
Northern France. The remainder was used by the RSA to assist unemployed
returned soldiers in need, and their families, during the winter of
||Dr Stephen Clarke, Historian
Royal New Zealand Returned and Services' Association.
the Lee Enfield had a "short magazine" what was a "long
This is a common misconception. The
word "short" refers to the rifle, not the magazine. To quote
an expert........."was unveiled in 1903 as the "Rifle, Short,
Magazine, Lee-Enfield, Mark 1", the famous S.M.L.E. It took me quite
some time to realise that, with the somewhat awkward, back-to-front
nomenclature of British ordnance, the word "short" designation
referred to the rifle, not the magazine!
Whereas the magazine had the
same dimensions as before, the rifle was indeed shorter than its
predecessor. The idea was that the S.M.L.E. would be in between rifle
and carbine length, and thus serve both functions. Barrel length was now
25 inches, and the robust, bull-dog nose cap/sight protector was
introduced. Finally refined as the S.M.L.E. No.1 Mark 3 in 1907, it was
lighter and handier than the long Lee-Enfield, was sighted for the new
Mark 7 .303 ammunition, had the desired clip feed facility (or "charger loading", as the British termed it) and possessed an
excellent set of open sights, which could now be readily zeroed. More
As an associated trivia piece the
bayonet was lengthened by the "lost" 5 inches to retain the
total strike value of the combined rifle/bayonet assembly.
was K Force?
Korean Force or K-Force. With the
commitment of Australian forces to the Korean War, the Australian
government called for 1,000 men to enlist in the army for three years,
with one year of overseas service in Korea. (Normal enlistment time at
that stage was for 6 years but this was a deterrent to many WW2 veterans
who wanted/needed a shorter term). The term "K-Force"
was primarily a promotional title, as those enlisting became part of the
regular army across all three infantry battalions, and were not a separate
it common to have brothers serve at Gallipoli?
Yes. There was the Curlewis brothers.
4 landed at Gallipoli on April 25th, 3 with the 16th Bn & 1 with the
12th Bn. Only 1 brother survived.
Lt Col Malone of the NZEF, the hero of
(and KIA at) Chunuk Bair was at Gallipoli and so were two of of his 4 sons. The other
two sons (from a second marriage) were too young to serve at that time.
Francis Longworth (1st ALH) and his 3 brothers Archibald (6th
George (6th ALH) and Hugh (6th ALH) were all there during
Another family (the Wheeler's) had all 6 brothers serve at Gallipoli, 5
with the 16th Bn & 1 with the 10th ALH.
||Charles Handcock of
Myrrhee, Victoria, had eight sons serve in the war.
- Albert (photo left) was
killed at Anzac on the first
day of battle, while one
of his brothers would later die on the last
day of the war.
Albert went ashore at ANZAC with
the 7th Battalion and was killed; his body was never found.
At the infamous charge at the Nek,
four sets of brothers died.
Spare a thought for the Beechey family
of WA in WW1. They sent 8 sons to war, including some to Gallipoli. 5
were killed. 1 was crippled for life. 2 survived intact. Details.
you have all the statistics on WW1?
Statistics are notoriously hard
to come by in a way that does not start more arguments than they solve.
ALL statistics are, at best, guesstimates in many cases. Also, different
sets of stats start from different positions. However, I believe these
to be as accurate as can be obtained but I make no guarantees.
gilt Field Marshal's baton. Both ends are wreathed in the laurel, Tudor
rose, thistle and shamrock pattern. The baton is surmounted by a silver
gilt figure of St George killing the dragon.
Body of baton is covered
with crimson velvet studded with gilt lions. Each end bears 'SG', London
hallmarks for 1925, and hallmarks for 18 carat gold.
Base is engraved
'FROM His Majesty GEORGE V King OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
AND IRELAND TO FIELD MARSHAL SIR WM. RIDDELL BIRDWOOD BT. C.C.B.,
G.C.M.G., K.C.S.I., C.I.E., D.S.O. 1925'.
of Khartoum holding his Field Marshal's baton
is a dixie?
A dixie is either a large Army cooking
pot or saucepan or the set of 2 metal food containers that soldiers
carry to cook food in while in the bush. The word comes from the Hindi
is "dixie bashing"?
It is the army slang term for washing
up. In large army kitchens the plates and cutlery are washed in
automatic dish washing machines but the large pots and pans are still
were the New Zealand Regimental Numbers of WW1?
Service numbers and
service person's name might be found on a service persons headstone,
death notice in newspaper or on the reverse side of the 1914-1915
Star. A soldier enlisted 17 August 1914 and was at Gallipoli in the NZ
Army Medical Corps and his service number was 3/133A. The Army sometimes
doubled up on service numbers, so instead of giving out new ones they
added the A. When ordering a Service Personnel File include the A
otherwise could end up with the service file of the person who had a
similar number e.g. 3/133.
The following prefixes
were used for WW1 service numbers of troops. Extracted from "Orders,
Decorations and Medals awarded to New Zealanders - an illustrated guide
for collectors" by Geoffrey P. Oldham and Brett Delahunt.
1/ Samoan Advance Force
2/ Royal New Zealand Artillery
3/ New Zealand Medical Corps
4/ New Zealand Engineers
5/ New Zealand Army Service Corps
6/ Canterbury Infantry
7/ Canterbury Mounted Rifles
8/ Otago Rifles
9/ Otago Mounted Rifles
10/ Wellington Rifles
11/ Wellington Mounted Rifles
12/ Auckland Rifles
13/ Auckland Mounted Rifles
14/ Army Service Corps Divisional Train
15/ New Zealand Expeditionary Force Headquarters Staff
16/ Maori Battalion
17/ New Zealand Veterinary Corps
18/ New Zealand Chaplains Department
19/ Samoan Relief Force, Infantry
20/ Samoan Relief Force, Mounted Rifles
21/ New Zealand Army Pay Corps
22/ New Zealand Nursing Service
23/ 1st Battalion, New Zealand Rifle Brigade
24/ 2nd Battalion, New Zealand Rifle Brigade
25/ 3rd Battalion, New Zealand Rifle Brigade
26/ 4th Battalion, New Zealand Rifle Brigade
This system was employed until the formation of the Tenth
Reinforcements, following which the prefix was omitted and a strict
numerical sequence was used.
Trench fever is an unusual disease
because it was first discovered in 1915 and reached epidemic proportions
on the Western Front, but then suddenly disappeared in 1918 when the war
ended. However, during the course of its epidemic, it infected some
800,000 Allied soldiers. It was yet again reported during the 2nd World
War, when it affected thousands of German soldiers on the Russian Front,
but it is now exceedingly rare. It was caused by a combination of poor
living conditions and louse infection.
For a full report go to http://www.gwpda.org/medical/liceand.htm
did Diggers have a bath in WW1?
On Gallipoli they bathed in the ocean.
In France and Flanders, although Divisional baths (with shared water)
were available in the rear lines, with facilities for bathing and
cleaning of clothes, the goal was only for a bath every 10 days and even
these infrequent baths were not always possible. It must be remembered
that the significance of lice, as the vector of trench fever, was
unknown during the war, and cleanliness was not a priority in the
trenches. This was a major factor contributing to the epidemic of Trench
have heard that soldiers have to shave every day. Is that true?
Yes that is true 99% of the time. In
the Boer War beards were allowed. In WW1 in the trenches shaving was
obligatory if the situation allowed it. WW2 was the same. Shave unless
involved in direct combat. Post WW2 shaving became compulsory regardless of
Navy & Air Force have to shave?
Air Force personnel have to shave as
described above. Navy personnel may make application to grow a beard.
If/when granted they are then NOT ALLOWED to shave for a set period.
Every year, after ANZAC
Day and Remembrance Day, the Department of Veterans’ Affairs receives
many letters asking about The Ode.
The issue raised by most
letters is whether the last word of the second line should be
‘condemn’ or ‘contemn’. Contemn means to ‘despise or treat
with disregard’, so both words fit the context.
Branch has been researching the poem and its background. The lines
comprise the fourth stanza of the poem For the Fallen by Laurence
Binyon, and were written in the bleak early days of World War 1. By
mid-September 1914, less than seven weeks after the outbreak of war, the
British Expeditionary Force in France had already suffered severe
casualties. During this time, long lists of the dead and wounded
appeared in British newspapers. It was against this background that
Binyon, then the Assistant Keeper of Prints and Drawings at the British
Museum, wrote For the Fallen. This poem was first published in The
Times on 21 September 1914.
shows ‘condemn’. Some people have suggested that the use of "condemn"
in The Times was a typographical error. If it were, one would
have expected then that the word would be correctly shown in The
Winnowing Fan, published only a few months later and for which
Binyon would have had galley proofs on which to mark amendments. Binyon
was a highly educated man and very precise in his language and use of
words. There is no doubt that had he intended "contemn", then
it would have been used.
There have been
variations in punctuation within the poem across the years and a change
in the spelling from ‘stanch’ to ‘staunch’. Dr John Hatcher, who
published in 1995 an exhaustive biography of Binyon, does not even refer
to any possible doubt over condemn/contemn, despite devoting a solid
chapter to For the Fallen.
The British Society of
Authors, who are executors of the Binyon estate, says the word is
definitely "condemn", while the British Museum, where Binyon
worked, says its memorial stone also shows "condemn". Both
expressed surprise when told there had been some debate about the matter
in Australia. Interestingly, the text used in 1916 by Sir Edward Elgar
to set the poem to music has eight stanzas; the eighth being inserted
between what now is regarded as the third and fourth stanzas.
The condemn/contemn issue
seems to be a distinctly Australian phenomenon. Inquiries with the
British, Canadian, and American Legions reveal that none has heard of
the debate. Despite an exhaustive search by Commemorations Branch
through Binyon’s published anthologies, no copy of the poem using
"contemn" was found. The two-volume set Collected Poems,
regarded as the definitive version of Binyon’s poems, uses
"condemn". Although inquiries are continuing, there now seems
little prospect of finding anything to support even a little the
In Australia, the
Returned and Services League, in its League handbook, shows
"condemn", while a representative of the Australian War
Memorial said it always uses "condemn" in its ceremonies. So
how did the confusion start? No-one knows, but certainly the question
has been debated for many years. Surely now it’s time to put the
matter to rest.
of Department of Veterans' Affairs
did entering the army include?
Contract of unlimited
liability: Someone who
becomes a soldier is crossing a legally defined boundary, giving up some
of the individual rights he hitherto enjoyed (such as the right to
labour), accepting collective standards which contribute to the common
good, and undertaking, in the last analysis, to kill or be killed for a
purpose in which he may have no personal interest. General Sir John
Hackett called this "the contract of unlimited liability". However
closely the army may come to resemble society, and however rarely it is
called upon to apply lethal force, this essential characteristic still
The process of turning a man into a
soldier and the discipline that underpins it has changed over time, and
is complicated by the fact that society, too, is never static, and what
was acceptable this year may not be so next. An age in which men were
deferential, inured to hardship and had low expectations produced raw
material quite different from that in an age where they are
non-deferential, litigious and inclined to question authority.
is the "short sheeting" my Grandad talks about?
This refers to a joke soldiers play on
each other when they are living in barracks. You strip the victims bed,
hide one sheet and turn the other back on itself at the half-way mark,
and remake the bed. When the victim tries to get in of course his legs
can only go half way down the bed.
the army insist that you make your own bed?
I don't know about now as most
soldiers live outside camp in private quarters. When they lived in
barracks the army was VERY concerned with bed making. You were required
to get fresh sheets and pillow cases weekly. The corners of the bed had
to be "hospital corners" i.e. at precisely 45 degrees turn in
and the whole lot had to be so tightly made so as to have a 10 cent coin
bounce if dropped onto it. No bounce?, the inspecting Sergeant would
strip the bed totally and tell you to start again.
long does it take to dig a trench?
from the Story of the 21st Bn AIF.
"This was a rather
remarkable performance as in one section of it 80 men dug 240 yards of
trench, plus traverses to a depth of 5 feet between 9.15 pm and 3.45 am
under a very heavy fire".
are so many Gallipoli graves "unidentified"?
high number of "unidentified" was a result of there
being no opportunity between 1915 and 1919 to preserve the
original timber grave markers and the absence of a Graves Registration
Unit at Gallipoli in 1915. Also creating a problem was the original
non-metal identification disks worn by troops of the British Empire
& Commonwealth. They were pressed fibre and over time they simply
Gallipoli mainly an Australian battle?
No. Far from it. Australia and New
Zealand played a significant part but it was smaller than the British
involvement. There were also French, French Foreign Legion, Senegalese,
Indian, Gurkha, Sikh, Punjabi, Maltese, Jewish (Russian & Poles) and
Ceylonese troops or supports. Much of the detail can be had at Graveyards
of Gallipoli, an associate site in the Digger History Group.
was "a marmalade"?
It was a nick-name for recruits in
WW1. It was given because they were so new that they still enjoyed
marmalade jam. After they had been in the Army long enough to get sick
of the ONLY type of jam offered they were past the recruit stage.
(Cynics say that marmalade jam was the only type offered because all the
apricot jam was sent to Gallipoli, where the troops complained of no
took part in moving the AIF/NZEF to Egypt?
King George's Sound, WA. 1914-11-01.
Departure of the First Detachment of the Australian and New Zealand
Imperial Expeditionary Forces from Albany. (AIF & NZEF)
|| A15 Star of
A16 Star of Victoria
|| A17 Port
|| A25 Anglo
| A7 Medic;
| HMNZT 3
|| HMNZT 6
|| HMNZT 9 Hawks
|| HMNZT 12
| HMNZT 4
|| HMNZT 7
| HMNZT 5
|| HMNZT 8 Star of
|| HMNZT 11
have books that say the Anzacs landed at Gaba Tepe. Why do you say
Many books and accounts written at the
time and just after refer to the landings at Gaba Tepe (Kabatepe). That
is where the Anzacs were supposed to land. That's what the orders said.
That is what the troops believed, sometimes for years after the war. In
some cases that is what citations for medals said. However, it never happened.
It is just another indication of the poor planning and the confusion
that bugged the Gallipoli Campaign from the start.
The boats either set off from poorly
positioned RN ships, or drifted north or were
steered north (by over a mile) and the landings took place at Ari Burnu
(Anzac Cove and North Beach). Gaba Tepe was never seriously attacked and was the
site of a small but troublesome 4 gun Turkish artillery unit during the entire
campaign. Even 2 months after the landings Field Marshal Kitchener did
not know that the Anzacs were not at Gaba Tepe.
Saint George & the Dragon only associated with English military
The Royal families of many European (and other) countries were
inter-related and they shared many heraldic items.
This Russian Imperial Eagle formal
parade visor hat head device insignia- cockade shows that is was
The Double-Headed Russian State
Imperial Eagle Crest Coat of Arms in Gold Color Finish. The
Double-headed Eagle was adopted as a Russian Emblem in 1497 by Tsar Ivan
This Eagle, facing both East and West,
was an old Byzantine Emblem of Roman origin. On the eagle breast- ancient
Moscow Coat of Arms: St. George slaying The Dragon.
badge was awarded to those who participated in military operations
during the Chechen war.
Russian crest and the image of Saint George Pobedonosets - the
patron saint of
- are on the background of the red cross. the inscription says
"veteran of military operations in Caucasus."
George was also called on by the Nazis. As the image left shows, they
were not adverse to using the English icon for their own purposes.
|What is a
In the Light Horse they were broken up
into 3 man sections. (4 men per section if the Regiment was at full strength,
which was rarely). When a fight started they would ride to a
point nearest the battle, 2 (or 3) would dismount and join the battle and 1 "horse
holder" would take care of all 3 (or 4) horses. He would keep them just
away from the battle site, close enough to pick up his mates if things
went wrong and far enough away to keep the horses safe. Below is an AWM
diorama of a horse holder in action at the Battle of Romani, Palestine.
there more NZ stuff on your site
I have as much as I can get. It
might sound strange to Aussies but the Kiwis are a bit "shy"
about their military history. It is almost as if they want to forget
the horrors of war. I quote from the index page of their "Army
Museum" where they say "For many years New Zealanders had
been reluctant to commemorate their military past and as a result
plans for a national war museum had not eventuated. The New Zealand
Army had maintained small collections and displays at Dunedin,
Burnham, Linton and Waiouru. In 1964, a small museum was established
in the original Waiouru Homestead and it wasn't until thirteen years
later that the Chief of General Staff, Major-General Ronald Hassett (a
veteran of WWII and Korea) launched "Operation Heritage" to
develop a national Army Museum.".
does it mean to "Advance in Review Order"?
This is the most spectacular parade
ground maneuver on the books. The Battalion (600 to 1,000
soldiers) in groups of approx 120 blokes, 40 men of each group
facing the front with 2 behind each man and a band is on parade. The
band will be in the centre. The order is given "band by the centre,
Battalion by the right, quick... The drummers cut in with a tattoo. On
the 9th beat every man steps forward with no further order. He marches
15 paces and comes to a snappy HALT. To see 1,000 men moving as one with
out orders is a sight for sore eyes.
it true that a VC winner is to be saluted by all ranks?
No. Some myths have been created over
the years about the "rights" of a VC winner. The most persistent
is that VC winners are to be saluted by all ranks from Field Marshal to
recruit, regardless of the rank of the awardee. Others are that a VC can
"take the parade" and that a VC can "Turn out the
Guard". All are false. They are just part of the fiction that grows
up in soldier's messes.
was Germany so keen to have WW2 after the horrors of WW1?
There were several reasons. Reaction
to the Great Depression which hit Germany hard, resentment at the huge
costs involved with reparations payments forced on Germany by the Allies
were two of them. Hitler's megalomania helped as well. One less often
recognised component of the German national psyche was the fact that
Germany escaped WW1. Yes, she lost hundreds of thousands killed and even
more wounded but the war was fought in France and Belgium. French towns
were shelled almost to oblivion, German towns were not. French and
Belgian citizens were killed in their thousands, German civilians were
not. France and Flanders burned, Germany escaped scot-free in that
When WW2 came and it was German towns
burning, German cities levelled to the ground, German citizens dying by
the thousand, German women being raped by the Ruskis, German
infrastructure destroyed there was a new found hated of war in Germany.
Invading other countries is fun, being invaded is not fun. Had the
Germans found that out in WW1, WW2 might not have happened.
is the meaning of "windy" or "Having the wind up?"
The human body naturally reacts to a
scare or fright by evacuating the bladder and bowels. It is called the
"fight or flight" reaction. That is where the saying "had
the shit scared out of him" started. When an upcoming event is
scary the body gets ready to evacuate the bowels by pumping large
amounts of adrenaline into the system. This tends to create gas in the
bowels as part of the attempt to liquefy the excreta to make evacuation
easy. The gas is referred to as "wind" (or farts). So , having the wind
up meant being nervous or scared. Most soldiers, all sensible ones, have
this reaction at some time, usually in the early part of their front
line service. After a while the blokes get conditioned, and the problem
stops (for most people).
is an "accidental discharge"?
An Accidental discharge (AD) is the
name given to the firing of a rifle accidentally. Soldiers are trained
not to have a live round in the chamber except on active service, while
on operations, but occasionally in training, particularly on rifle
ranges some dill will have an accidental discharge. They are VERY
dangerous and the soldier who has an AD is usually charged and the wrath
of the entire Unit comes down on him.
do American junior Officers get gold insignia & seniors get
Once upon a time army
officers wore gold or silver epaulettes on the shoulders of their
uniforms. On the silver epaulette the rank insignia was in gold
bullion embroidery for contrast and vice-versa for gold epaulettes
with silver rank badges. Generals wore a gold epaulettes with one or
two embroidered silver stars for either Brigadier or Major General. A
full Colonel wore a large silver eagle. Second
Lieutenants wore plain gold or silver epaulettes and a First
Lieutenant had a bar of contrasting colour and Captains wore two bars.
Majors wore no rank insignia on their epaulettes which were larger
than those of subalterns (junior officers), the rank of Lieutenant
Colonel was added and they were given a silver leaf on gold as they
were staff officers, while Cavalry and other arms wore silver
epaulettes. Silver epaulettes were eliminated and only gold epaulettes
were retained, when it was decided to award Majors a leaf, it was gold
as the silver leaf was already used by Lieutenant Colonels, thus
silver outranked gold. In 1872 they switched from a gold bar or two
gold bars for First Lieutenants and Captains, they became silver too!
In 1917 a Second Lieutenant was given a rank insignia of the formerly
used gold bar. During the First World War until 1924, rank insignia
was darkened bronze.
is correct pronunciation, "Loo-tenant" or "Lef-tenant"?
The correct pronunciation of
Lieutenant in the Australian Services is 'lef-tenant'. The US use the
other version. Strangely the American version is closer to historically
accurate. The word has it's origins in the ranks of the Roman Army and
has come through French and middle English. A 'caput' was the equivalent
a Captain. The word roughly translates to 'leader' or 'head of a group'.
The rank next down would hold 'tenant' (authority) in his absence, or
"in lieu of the tenant".
Australian soldiers serve in WW2?
Australian land forces served in these
- United Kingdom
- North Africa
- New Guinea
- Dutch New Guinea
- New Britain
- New Ireland
- Solomon Islands
- New Caledonia
- Nauru-Ocean Island