||Compulsory military training introduced
||The early Federal government introduced
compulsory military training at the instigation of Lord Kitchener, who
inspected and advised on Australia's defence forces in 1910.
||1st AIF sails
||The first Australian and New Zealand
contingent sails from Albany, Western Australia, bound for Egypt. Only
one in four of those who sailed in the first convoy would return
un-wounded at the end of the Great War.
||Australia ratifies United Nations
||Australia played a leading role in the
formation of the United Nations, a product of its commitment to the
ideals for which the Allies fought in the Second World War.
||No. 77 Squadron awarded South Korean
||No. 77 Squadron, RAAF, is awarded a
Republic of South Korea Presidential Citation. 77 Squadron was awarded
this citation for its early service in Korea as an effective
||National Army Memorial dedicated
||Dedication of the National Army Memorial
in Anzac Parade, Canberra, by the Governor General, The Hon. Bill
Hayden. The memorial commemorates the service of Australians as
members of the Australian Army in all wars.
||Kokoda airstrip re-occupied
||The capture of Kokoda, New Guinea, and
its airstrip enabled the Australian advance across the Owen Stanley
Range to continue.
||Armistice with Austria-Hungary signed
||With Turkey having already signed an
armistice Germany was left to confront the Allies alone for the
remaining days of the war.
||Troops of the 6th Brigade land at
Jacquinot Bay, New Britain. Jacquinot Bay became an important base for
Australian operations against the Japanese on New Britain.
||Battle of Pakchon, Korea
||The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian
Regiment, successfully assault and hold crucial hill features
overlooking Pakchon in the face of heavy North Korean and Chinese
||77 Squadron supports 3RAR
||No. 77 Squadron, for the first time in
the Korean War, flies in support of the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian
Regiment, in the Pakchon - Sinanju road area, Korea. Australian
Mustang fighters strafed Chinese positions just before 3RAR commenced
its assault at Pakchon.
||HMAS Sydney at Vung Tau
||HMAS Sydney embarks its final Australian
army units from Vietnam at Vung Tau.
||Third battle of Gaza
||After the outflanking advance at
Beersheba, British empire forces, including the Australian Light
Horse, rapidly advanced northwards toward Jerusalem.
||'G' George arrives at Amberley
||This Lancaster bomber survived 90
operations with 460 Squadron RAAF. After touring to support war loan
campaigns, it was presented to the Memorial.
||HMAS Sydney sinks the Emden
||HMAS Sydney sinks the German cruiser
Emden, off the Cocos Islands. The Emden had menaced the first convoy
carrying Australian troops toward Egypt, but was driven ashore and
destroyed by the Sydney in a brief but bloody action.
||Japanese forced from Oivi
||Japanese forced back from Oivi by
Australian troops. Japanese troops doggedly contested the Australian
pursuit down the northern face of the Owen Stanley Ranges.
||Selective conscription introduced
||Australian Government introduces
selective conscription of 20 year old males by ballot under the
National Service Act. The National Service Scheme saw 19,450 young men
serve in Vietnam.
||Germany signs armistice
||Germany signs an armistice ending the
fighting on the Western Front. The Great War ended at the eleventh
hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month.
||Opening of the Australian War Memorial
||By the time a memorial to the dead of
the Great War was ready to open, Australia had been involved in the
Second World War for over two years.
||HMAS Sydney in action at Strait of
||HMAS Sydney in action at the Strait of
Otranto in a diversion for the British attack on Taranto. The cruiser
HMAS Sydney became the most celebrated ship in the RAN after its
performance in the Mediterranean against the Italian navy in 1940.
||Last Japanese air raid on Darwin
||This, the 64th raid since February 1942,
saw a conclusion of the air war fought across northern Australia.
||Warrant Officer K. Wheatley, Australian
Army Training Team Vietnam, originally from Sydney, New South Wales,
wins the first Victoria Cross of the Vietnam War posthumously in the
Tra Bong Valley, Quang Ngai province.
||End of third battle of Ypres, Western
||Australian troops had been involved in
the third battle of Ypres for three and a half months and suffered
heavy losses at such places as Menin Road, Glencourse Wood, Polygon
Wood, Broodseinde Ridge and Passchendaele.
||Australian White Ensign lowered for the
last time in Papua New Guinea.
||The Royal Australian Navy's base, HMAS
Tarangau, and HMA ships Buna, Salamaua, Aitape, Lae and Madang were
transferred to the Papua New Guinea Self Defence Force.
||Australian government approves sending
of Australian Women's Army Service (AWAS) members overseas
||AWAS went to Lae, New Guinea, to replace
men for service in forward areas. Members of the Australian Army
Nursing Service (AANS) and the Australian Army Medical Women's Service
(AAMWS) were already serving in New Guinea.
||Mountbatten appointed Supreme Allied
Commander, South East Asia
||Admiral Louis Mountbatten appointed
Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia. .
||The 9th Division begins its attack on
Sattleberg. Sattelberg, a high peak and the key to the occupation of
the Huon Peninsula, involved a hard, four-month campaign for the 9th
||Somme campaign ends
||After four months and more than
1,200,000 casualties on both sides, General Douglas Haig calls off the
failed Somme offensive.
||Popondetta captured by Australians
||Popondetta, on the steamy kunai plains
north of the Owen Stanley Range, became a major Allied base for the
attack on the Japanese-held beachheads in Papua.
||HMAS Sydney sunk
||Sydney was lost with its entire crew of
645 men in a sudden and disastrous encounter with the German raider,
Kormoran, off the Western Australian coast. Its loss remains
controversial to this day.
||HMAS Sydney at Vung Tau
||HMAS Sydney disembarks the 9th
Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, at Vung Tau, Vietnam.
||Japanese counter-attack at Scarlet Beach
||The Japanese surprise raid at Scarlet
Beach, near Lae, Papua New Guinea, was narrowly held by American and
||HMAS Canberra rescues merchant ship
||The Canberra picked up 3
survivors from the merchant ship, Port Brisbane, which was sunk in the
Indian Ocean by the German raider Pinguin.
||Lieutenant L.C. Maygar, 5th Victorian
Mounted Rifles, originally from Kilmore, Victoria, wins the Victoria
Cross at Geelhoutboom, Natal. Maygar was the sixth and last Australian
to be awarded the Victoria Cross during the Boer War.
||Australian troops relieve Americans at
Cape Torokina, Bougainville
||The Australian arrival opened the
campaign on Bougainville that cost over 500 Australian lives by the
||Formation of the Australian Regiment
||Formation of The Australian Regiment,
which became the Royal Australian Regiment (RAR) on 10 March 1949. The
Royal Australian Regiment has taken a prominent role in Australia's
wars and peacekeeping operations since its formation.
||Sergeant T.C. Derrick, 2/48th Battalion,
wins the Victoria Cross at Sattleberg, New Guinea. Derrick, one of the
great Australian soldiers of the Second World War, seized the summit
of Sattelberg virtually single-handedly, leading the way for the
Australian occupation of the dominating feature. He was from Adelaide,
||Battle of Graspan, South Africa
||Members of the New South Wales Lancers
involved in the Battle of Graspan, South Africa. This, one of the
series of defeats suffered by the British in the opening months of the
Boer War, involved 29 members of the NSW Lancers, the first Australian
troops to reach South Africa.
||Fighting at Pabu Hill, New Guinea
||2/43rd Battalion repulses strong
Japanese attacks on Pabu Hill, New Guinea. The 2/43rd Battalion, from
South Australia, held Pabu, one of the outlying features near
Sattelberg, against strong Japanese attacks.
||Inauguration of the Empire Air Training
||Over 37,000 Australian airmen trained
under the scheme, in Australia, Canada and Rhodesia, one of the
Commonwealth's greatest achievements in wartime.
||HMAS Parramatta sunk
||HMAS Parramatta was sunk by a German
submarine in the Mediterranean near Tobruk. The Parramatta was part of
the navy's 'Tobruk ferry', whose destroyers and sloops kept the
besieged port supplied.
|28 - 29 November
||Flight Sergeant R.H. Middleton, RAAF,
attached to No. 149 Squadron, Bomber Command, RAF, wins the Victoria
Cross after a raid on Turin, Italy. This was a Posthumous award. Though
terribly wounded, Middleton kept his damaged bomber flying, saving the
lives of his crew at the cost of his own. Middleton came from Sydney,
New South Wales.
||Teadong River crossing secured
||The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian
Regiment, secures the Teadong River ferry crossing, Korea. This was
one of only two north-south roads available for the US Eighth Army's
retreat in the face of Chinese forces. 3RAR secured the crossing and
protected it from Chinese and North Korean infiltrators.
||President Truman threatens use of atomic
weapons in Korea
||United States President Truman refers
publicly to the possible use of atomic weapons in Korea. Fortunately,
despite the crisis that United nations troops faced after China's
entry into the war, atomic weapons were not used in Korea.