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Category: Digger's Diaries

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Verdi George SCHWINGHAMMER

No: 2639

Private 42nd Battalion

1st AIF 1917-1919

 

No 409077

Sergeant Army Pay Corps

2nd AIF 1942-1945

 

The 42nd Battalion A.I.F. - known as the "Australian Black Watch" because it had it own pipe band - recruited its men from the Northern Rivers of NSW and Southern Queensland during February 1916.

By June 5th that year, its men embarked for Egypt and then to England, arriving on the 23rd July.1916.

After further training in England, the Battalion shipped out to France, arriving on the 25th November. One month later, Christmas Eve, 1916, it entered the front line, remaining in or near the line from that day until October 2nd, 1918.

During their 647 days of near continuous combat, the 42nd Battalion engaged in twelve battles, with 450 killed.

Private Verdi George Schwinghammer succeeded in enlisting in the 42nd Battalion on 6th May, 1916. He had failed in an earlier attempt to enlist.

This is his diary. The story of a gentle Christian, named after the composer by music loving parents. Verdi was the Australian born son of German parents.

THE BEGINNING

6th May, 1916, signed the enlistment papers after having been previously rejected in 1915.

20th June, left Byron Bay by train to Lismore for the medical examination.

This time, Dr Bignell passed me, without even examining me, because he could see that I was eager to enlist and men were badly needed.

On 14th July I went to Lismore again and was sworn in. I returned to Byron Bay, resigned my position in the Northern Rivers Co-Op Coy Ltd and was given various farewells and presentations by my friends.

Then, I went home to South Grafton and spent a few days with my parents before leaving by steamer for Sydney and down on to the Jervis Bay Lighthouse where I spent a week's holiday with the Lighthouse Keeper and his family.

Returned by steamer from Sydney to Byron Bay and then on to Brisbane arriving the 9th August.

10th August, reported to the Drill Hall in Brisbane, then by train to Enoggera. Marched into camp at Frazer's Paddock. About sixty of us marched in that morning. Dressed in our civilian clothes and carrying our ports.

The men already there greeted us that morning with various welcomes such as; "You'll be sorry you joined the army" I didn't know anyone, but soon made friendships, some of which will remain for life.

IN CAMP

Our civilian clothes were taken from us and we were issued with a suit of blue dungarees, flannels, blucher boots, white hat, two blankets, knife, fork and spoon, plate and mug.

We were then portioned out into tents, twelve to a tent. Each of us, losing our identity, becoming known from then on, as a number. For me, it was; J 16242 of "A" Company.

Then the first inoculation and freedom to roam about the camp for the next two days. The various camps, which went by the names; Frazer's Paddock, Bell's Paddock, Rifle Range and so on, were well laid out.

Huts were under construction ( which eventually did away with the tents ) and we had our meals in large sheds, holding three hundred or more. There were good recreation huts, with pianos, billiard tables etc, each managed by either the Y.M.C.A., the Church of England or the Salvation Army.

A White City was constructed for the troops' amusements. It had a picture show, ( free ), boxing hall and restaurants. Concert parties came out from Brisbane almost every night and we used frequently to get leave to visit Brisbane.

After three days in camp I was appointed a clerk in the Quarter Master's Store which of course exempted me from drill, guard etc. I spent three weeks here. During this time we were vaccinated. I took sick, being sent first to hospital for a fortnight and then on to the convalescent hospital, called "Staghorn", which was located on the beach at Southport.

I had to return to the hospital to be discharged and rejoined the camp on the 12th October. On the 20th October, my brother Charlie entered camp and I was glad to see him. I was then given final leave, arriving in Grafton on the 3rd November, returning to camp on the 13th.

As my brother was sailing on the 16th November, I successfully applied to get away on the same transport. Charlie was attached to the reinforcements for the 41st battalion. I was drafted to the 5th Reinforcements of the 42nd Battalion. ( No. 2642 of ":C" Company.)

Sir Goold Adams - Governor of Queensland - reviewed the troops and then we had our last night's leave in Brisbane. 16th November, 1916, up early, marched with our packs to Rifle Range Station, accompanied by the cheers of the men still in camp. Entrained for Pinkenba - 14 miles away.

Our transport was waiting for us and we boarded. It was a memorable sight, the steamer, crowded with soldiers up the rigging and everywhere. The wharf was crowded with relatives and friends and coloured paper streamers were thrown over to us.

The band was playing and other steamers in the vicinity sounded their sirens. We then sailed down Moreton Bay and entered the ocean.

ABOARD THE "KYARRA"

Our steamer was the "Kyarra" - later torpedoed. She was 7,000 tons. An old but good sea boat.

There were 960 troops and seven nurses on board. (Some of the men had never been to sea before and got very sick. I was blessed as a good sailor and didn't get sick.) We were shown our quarters, (each company having drawn lots for positions on the steamer) and "C" Company was lucky enough to draw "A" deck - the best deck, first one below and portholes as well.

We were given hammocks but after the first night, I preferred to sleep on the floor of the deck as I was too tall and couldn't sleep comfortably in the hammock. We passed quite close to Cape Byron and Yamba and could easily distinguish the well-known landscapes.

The sea was very calm. Twenty sat at each table for meals and I was one of the two orderlies for our table. That meant laying table, clearing away and washing up, going to the cookhouse for food etc, but it had its advantages, as we were free from guards, drill and fatigues.

When the sea was calm enough to permit it, drill was indulged in and there were always piquet's and guards posted on various parts of the steamer. We also had to attend the many lectures that were given.

After leaving the New South Wales Coast we kept a good way out and saw very little land. Had a calm trip across the Great Australian Bight, which is very unusual. On the tenth day out, we sighted the West Australian Coast and early next morning, entered Fremantle Harbour and anchored in midstream.

Went ashore in launches and I was on picquet duty for two hours. Had a good look over Fremantle and then took a train to Perth, 10 miles away. A very pretty city. Sent a telegram from here. Returned to steamer at midnight.

The guard searched us as we went aboard to see if we had any liquor in our possession. We weren't issued any vinegar on the troopship and as I was craving for some, I had bought a bottle at Fremantle and had it on me when I boarded the steamer.

The guard, when searching me, thought it was liquor and took it from me, even though I had told him it was only vinegar, handing it to the orderly room and reporting me. Next morning, at breakfast, our Lieutenant came in and handed me back my bottle as he had opened it and found it wasn't liquor.

We had no piano aboard when we left Brisbane so at Fremantle, we put in two shillings each (most of us) and bought one. Placed it on the main top deck, strapping it down, and afterwards got much pleasure from same.

Early next morning, we sailed out of Fremantle Harbour and land was soon out of sight. Now commenced our long run across to Africa. We were hoping to go via the Suez Canal, but our instructions proved to be via the Cape. Every night we had sing-songs or dances on deck.

I was one of the pianists and the dances were all buck ones. Sometimes one of the nurses might be off duty and in which case she joined us. Every Friday was sports day and we had some very good deck races and games.

Every Saturday night we had a big concert. We used to print the programme of our concerts on the printing press which we had on board. There were twenty-two men from the Clarence River District on board the "Kyarra" so we got our names printed on a card and sent it home as a souvenir.

A newspaper was also printed at intervals - the "Dryarra Wail" - so named because all troopships were "dry" - no liquor available on issue or for sale. Wireless news was posted up on deck every morning so we knew how the war was progressing. Church was held on Sundays as we had three chaplains on board.

The food wasn't as good as we had been used to in camps in Australia and on one occasion when rabbit was issued to us, we refused to eat it and threw it overboard. Thereafter, no more rabbit was issued to us. The Canteen was open every day but it soon ran out of biscuits, chocolates, tinned fruits etc.

Meningitis broke out and we were fumigated and had our throats sprayed. Three died and were buried at sea. Burial at sea is very sad. A board is attached to the side of the steamer, on which rests the body, sewn in canvas, weighted and covered with the Union Jack.

The steamer is stopped. The chaplain reads the prayers. The body is thrown overboard. The steamer resumes her journey and life goes on as usual. That night, we had a memorial service on deck and most of us wrote letters of sympathy to the boys' parents in Australia.

Luckily, the outbreak was quelled and no more deaths occurred. After being eighteen days without seeing land, at daybreak on the 15th December, we sighted the African Coast and soon afterwards entered Port Natal and tied up at Durban.

Miss Ethel Campbell - "The Angel Of Durban" - welcomed us with her flags as we entered the harbour. We stayed a week here and had a very happy time indeed. We marched to the Town Hall and were welcomed by the Mayor.

Durban is a very beautiful city and is the most loyal part of South Africa. The people couldn't do enough for us. The trams were free to soldiers. Free meals were provided for us every day. People were always inviting us to their homes.

The "Niggers" coaled the steamer here. No machinery. Every bit of coal was carried aboard in baskets. Had several visits to the zoo which contains the finest collection of African wild animals and snakes in the world.

Surfing on the fine beaches was a delight, especially as the weather was very hot. I went to the "Messiah" in the Town Hall and saw, in the museum, the German Flag that General Botha hauled down when he captured German East Africa.

The "Niggers" - Kaffirs etc - here, are in the majority and are kept in their places by the whites. They are only allowed to walk on the footpaths in certain parts of the city (they must keep to the streets) and only allowed to travel on the four back seats of trams. A common notice to see up over shops, restaurants, theatres etc, is the "Europeans Only Admitted".

The natives do great business with their rickshaws and for sixpence we could get a rickshaw ride all over the city. The "rickshaw" men are fine big chaps. They paint their bodies - only having a loincloth on - with various designs and have a large headdress of horns and feathers.

When pulling a rickshaw along, they rear up and shy at other rickshaws just like horses. We left Durban on the 22nd December, accompanied by the transports: "Port Napier" and "Hororato".

We followed, close to the coast, passing East London and Port Elizabeth. Passed over the spot where the "Waratah" was lost with all its hands. Spent Christmas Day at sea and had a good dinner, supplied by the Australian Comforts Fund.

Entered Table Bay at daylight on Boxing Day and was lucky to see Table Mountain in all its grandeur and beauty. The sun was rising and the Table Mountain was covered with a white cloth of cloud. Hence its name. It was a very beautiful sight indeed.

We tied up at the docks and had the day free in Capetown. This is the oldest city of South Africa and proved very interesting. The people are mostly of Dutch descent. It is not so up to date as Durban and the niggers are not so plentiful - there are no rickshaws.

We saw all the interesting sites; the museum containing the Boer War relics; the cathedral which contains a book in which is written the name of every soldier who died fighting for the Empire in the Boer War, the Rhodes Monument etc..etc.

If you look up when walking down the main street of Capetown, Table Mountain appears to be right on top of you, hanging over the street, whereas it is many miles away. Fruit is plentiful here and we stocked up well.

Several other Australian troopships were also in the harbour. Whilst we were here, a troopship, laden with English soldiers from German East Africa, arrived in port. It was pitiful to see the men. Most of them were suffering from malaria and other tropical diseases.

On 27th December, seven troopships; Kyarra; Wanganui; Tahiti, Hororato; Suevic; Beltana and Borda escorted by HMS Glasgow, left Capetown. It was a fine sight to see - all steaming together. The Warship was ahead, then the Kyarra (we were the slowest) then three on either side about two hundred yards apart. We kept in this position until we arrived in the English Channel, three weeks later.

All sorts of rumours were now going around: some said we were going north to Egypt; others that we were bound for Nova Scotia via New York. (America was not yet in the war.) The sea continued very calm. On the seventh day out from Capetown - without seeing land - we were told that we were going to call at St Helena and all were excited at the prospect of seeing this historic spot.

On New Year's Eve (1917) we stayed up on deck and ushered in the New Year by visiting various parts of the steamer and singing " for he's a jolly good fellow" etc.

On the morning of the 3rd January, 1917, as the fog was lifting, we sighted the island of St Helena, and an hour later, anchored off Jamestown - the tiny capital of the Island and its only town. The island is very mountainous at one end (it is only seven miles long by three across) and slopes towards the sea at one end. It is surrounded by deep water with not an inch of sandy beach and is 1250 miles from the nearest land (West Africa). It was indeed a privilege to gaze on the spot where the great Napoleon lived for seven years and where he died. His grave - where he was buried before being transferred to Paris - is in the centre of the island. Many Boer prisoners were interned here during that war. The population is 3,600, mostly half castes. The island is strongly fortified and is an important coaling station.

Boats came out to us, selling fruit and souvenirs, such as leaves from a tree growing on Napoleon's grave. We picked up the South African troopship New Britain here and the next day we all left St Helena and resumed our voyage. The weather was now getting very hot.

We crossed the Equator on the 8th January and had the usual Father Neptune sports. A large canvas tank was erected on deck, filled with water and everyone was dipped. On the seventh day out from St Helena we sighted the African Coast and entered the harbour at Freetown - the capital of British Sierra Leone - and anchored mid stream.

Much to our disappointment we couldn't land here. Crowds of steamers (mostly captured German ones) were anchored in the harbour. From our deck the city looked beautiful. White buildings with red tiled roofs, nestling amongst the palms and cocoanuts. The heat here was terrific and the pitch was oozing from the cracks in the decks.

Natives came out in their canoes, selling us oranges and coconuts which were relished by us on account of the great heat. We used to get a billy can, lower it down through a porthole with money in it and draw it up full of fruit. The natives were not allowed on the steamer.

The natives were stark naked and used to go through lots of antics in their canoes. They were expert divers and if we threw a coin overboard they would dive and get it before it sank. Our Captain bought one of their canoes and took it to England as a souvenir.

The cruiser Swiftsure was in the harbour and some of her sailors came aboard to mount an anti submarine gun on our ship. We stayed there four days, taking on board fresh water, coal and provisions, then escorted by the auxiliary cruiser Almazora we put to sea again. (The Glasgow having left us to go back to Capetown.)

Now commenced the most dangerous part of the journey as we were in the submarine zone. All the portholes were darkened and we travelled without lights. If anyone wanted to smoke at night they were not permitted to do so on deck and had to go down to the bottom deck. It was a serious crime to show a light of any kind.

It is a wonder that there weren't more accidents at night as the ship was packed. We were in pitch darkness and there were so many steps and stairs with the ship rolling all the time. We gave the Canary Islands a wide berth as the German Submarines were, at this time, shelling them. One day we passed a suspicious looking steamer some distance away.

The cruiser signalled her to stop but, as she didn't do so, fired a shot across her bows. She altered course and came over to the cruiser. She happened to be a neutral (Dutch) ship on her way to America. One day, a target - a large floating box - was placed at sea and we enjoyed watching the gunners of the anti-submarine gun having target practice. They hit it several times.

Another day, we passed the fine battleship Prince Alfred and were lined up on deck and saluted her as we passed. We struck the first real rough weather on the 24th January and the nine of us were tossing about like corks. We ran into rainy and cold weather. A few weeks previously we were sweltering in the heat of the tropics, now we were almost freezing.

Submarine guard was on duty most of the time - that is, men were posted at various parts of the ship (up the masthead, etc.) with loaded rifles, in case the periscope of a submarine appeared. We struck terrible weather crossing the Bay of Biscay and had a very unpleasant time.

On the afternoon of the 29th January, 1917, we sighted seven British Destroyers and they were up to us in no time. It was a fine sight to see them cruising among us. We were now in the English Channel and we knew that we were safe with the British Navy to guard us. We had been nearly eleven weeks at sea and hadn't seen a single enemy ship on the high seas. That spoke volumes for the British Navy.

All the other troop ships put on full speed and left us, each being escorted by a destroyer. One destroyer stayed behind and guarded us. She used to circle around us all the time. Our troopship was very slow and we couldn't keep up with the others when they put on full steam.

We passed a lot of wreckage from a steamer that had been torpedoed only a few miles from us the previous night. Early next morning we passed Eddystone lighthouse and subsequently sighted the coast of England, which we followed all day and at eight o'clock that night - 30th January, 1917 - entered Plymouth Harbour and anchored there.

We were thankful to be safe after our voyage of 16,000 miles - we had come the long route - and which had taken ten weeks and four days.

ENGLAND

Next morning we could see the hills covered with snow. (The first snow that I and many of the other men had ever seen.) At 3 o'clock tenders came out to us and we left the troopship, which had been our home for so long, and went across the harbour, landing at the Princess Royal Pier and set foot on England>

Long trains were drawn up on the pier, which we entered and commenced our journey. We travelled 96 miles, passing through the beautiful English countryside and villages. Everything was covered with snow. At Exeter the Mayoress and ladies entertained us at tea on the railway station.

We continued our journey and arrived at Dinton railway station at midnight. Then marched five miles, through a snowstorm, to our camps at Sutton Mandeville. We were billeted here in large huts with plenty of blankets and a fire continually burning in the hut. The food was very good and we had the usual recreation huts.

For several days we were off duty as our feet and hands swelled up with the intense cold.

An aerodrome was next to our camp and some of us saw aeroplanes for the first time in our lives as there were no aeroplanes near our camp in Brisbane.

Mumps broke out and we were isolated for a fortnight.

When off duty on Sundays we used to walk to the villages of Fovant, Tisbury and Swallowcliffe. Also went one day and saw Wardour Castle.

On 16th March, we went by train from Fovant to Amesbury and then marched to the main Australian camp at Larkhill, Salisbury Plains and were billeted in No.11 Camp. Eighty thousand Australian troops were camped here. There were hundreds of large huts and through them ran a large street containing halls, picture theatres, recreation huts, etc. where we could buy almost everything.

The drilling here was very severe and strenuous. We were up at daylight every morning and continued drilling till dark, with half a day Saturday and all day Sunday off.

On Sundays several of us would walk all through the interesting villages and explore them. Stonehenge contained much of interest, also Figheldean, which is famous on account of the poem "Under The Spreading Chestnut Tree". We saw the original blacksmith's shop - also the tomb of the smithy (named Shepherd) and his wife in the Parish churchyard adjoining.

While we were here, we were given four days' leave to London. The night before leaving camp many of us were unable to sleep for excitement at the prospect of visiting the world's largest city. One morning we were up early and marched in heavy rain to Amesbury where we entrained for London, arriving there at 11 a.m.

It would take me hours to describe the wonders of this great city. We stayed at the A.I.F. War Chest Club which was run for Australian troops only and managed by Australian ladies residing in London. The first person I spoke to was an old friend, Mrs C Jones, who used to reside in South Grafton for many years where her husband had a Chemist's shop. Her only son was in the A.I.F. in France and when he got wounded she left Australia and came to London to be near him and worked voluntarily for the soldiers at the War Chest Club.

We saw through St. Paul's Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, The Tower of London, Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace, etc. Spent Good Friday, Easter Sunday and Easter Monday in London returning to camp on Easter Monday night after a very enjoyable four days.

Midsummer was now on us and the beauty of an English summer was not to be forgotten. The beautiful trees, shrubs, flowers, etc were a revelation. It was light at three in the morning and at ten at night the sun was still up. I had a touch of pleurisy here and was in hospital for ten days but my brother Charlie was very ill with pneumonia in Farge hospital for seven weeks.

Concert parties used to come down from London nearly every night and we had some very interesting lectures given us by some of the leading University men who were too old for active service.

Five months were spent at this camp and by the end of this time we were all fit and well trained soldiers. I myself weighed 12 stone and never felt better in my life.

On 17th April we marched to Bulford and were reviewed by the King, George V, a memorable occasion. On 23rd June, the majority of our reinforcements including my brother's 41st Bn reinforcements, left for France. Along with two others, I was kept back in England as witnesses in a case where a soldier was knocked down and badly hurt by a motor car.

DEPARTURE FROM ENGLAND FOR FRANCE

Great excitement prevailed among us when we were told to get ready for France. A couple of days were spent getting ready and on Monday morning, 23rd July, 1917 we left Larkhill camp, England, to the cheers of the men in camp and the strains of bands playing. We marched the four miles to Amesbury.

We then took train and journeyed to Southampton and embarked on La Marguerite.

It was a fine sight to see all the transports leaving for France, being escorted by destroyers and seaplanes. After a calm trip of nine hours we arrived at Le Havre and set foot on French soil at daylight on 24th July. We were in France at last!

The usual street pedlars besieged us selling chocolates, fruit and books ("How to Speak French" etc.)

We then marched 7 miles to the Australian base Camp at Marfleur. This was a huge camp with every comfort and all were happy here as we were a safe distance from the line - couldn't even hear the guns or bombardments. We were fixed up in Bell tents (eight in each) and the meals - which were served in large dining halls - were excellent.

We stayed here for a fortnight practising battle and trench warfare and going through rifle and gas drill. Our way to the parade ground ("Bull Ring" as it was called by us) was up a steep hill through a beautiful avenue of trees.

For three days I was a guard of the German prisoners' camp. Also went in one night (in by tram - back by train) with my pal and had a good look over the fine city of Le Havre. When everything was ready we marched with full packs - carrying blankets, gas helmet, ammunition, etc. - to the railway station at Le Havre. As no train was ready for us we slept on the station that night but there were plenty of canteens where we could buy food.

After waiting on the railway station all next day we entrained and left Le Havre at 4 p.m. We were lucky to get ordinary French carriages with wooden seats (no cushions) and ten in each carriage, but with our equipment in, there wasn't much room. Mostly the troops travelled in the 'famous/infamous' trucks; "40 Hommes/8 Chevaux" which, in English, means "40 men or 8 horses."

After travelling all night through the beautiful French countryside and many pretty and interesting towns, we reached the town of Hazebrouck next day at midday. We were now getting close to the line.

While we were at the railway station here, a daylight air raid took place. A German plane flew very low over the station buildings, dropping bombs, killing and wounding many and scattering debris on to our carriages.

This was the first enemy bomb that I had heard and I didn't realise the danger of it then. Our train then steamed off about a mile down the line and stayed there for some time.

We eventually continued our journey and arrived near the village of Steenwerck about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. This was as far as the train could go as the line was not many miles away. We could now see all the balloons suspended in mid air near the lines a few miles off and could hear the guns and also see the shells exploding in the air as they were directed at the balloons.

We dis-entrained and marched to some huts near the baths and after some tea we marched to our camp which was called by the religious name of "Jesus Farm" on account of a huge wayside crucifix nearby. Our Battalion was resting there after having been in the Battle of Warneton and in which they suffered heavily.

The camp was comprised of about twenty small circular huts. Our pals gave us a great welcome and we were glad to rejoin them in France. After our names were registered and distributed in the huts amongst our various pals we at last became part of the 42nd Battalion, A.I.F., ready for action. It was just twelve months since I had entered camp in Brisbane.

Just as we were getting fixed up, a huge shell came over and exploded in an open paddock next to our huts.

That night a big air raid took place and we enjoyed watching our guns shooting at the German planes - which were caught and held in the searchlights - several close hits being secured. No bombs fell on our camp but one bomb fell on the horse lines close by, killing and wounding several mules and horses.

It was pitiful to hear the wounded animals groaning and several had to be shot out of their misery.

The next day we marched to Steenwerck and were reviewed by General Plumer. We marched several times to the famous Palmer Baths over the border into Belgium.

One day, we went on fatigue in motor lorries some 16 kilometres away to Strazeele where we were engaged in stacking shells for our big guns. It took two of us to lift one shell. While we were here, we saw several large holes in the ground which had been made by bombs from the German planes. Each was large enough to hold a motor lorry.

The working parties up near the line at Messines Ridge were not to be forgotten. Every morning at 2 am we were awakened and given our breakfast of pork and beans and then went in motor lorries through the ruins of Neve Eglise up to the Messines where we were engaged in making roads and digging trenches.

We generally got in an hour or two's work, because as soon as it dawned the enemy used to bombard our positions and it was 'leave off work' and get back to safety the best way one could.

I remember one morning; the enemy followed us with his shells right back to our motor lorries which we had left on the cobble-stoned road near the big military cemetery.

We had several narrow escapes - some were wounded but none we killed. I soon learned to assume the "prone" position; that is to fall flat down on one's stomach as soon as one heard a shell coming over.

Whilst here we had a good look at Steenwerck which contained a fine old church with a famous grotto. The Bishop of Armentieres moved to Steenwerck after his city was destroyed in 1917 but he had to flee from STEENWERCK in March 1918 during the big German offensive.

On the 22nd August, we marched to Steenwerck railway station and entrained. After a three hour journey we arrived at Wizurnes where we got out and marched to the pretty little village of Remilly (near Lumbres) where we remained for several weeks practising for the Battle of Ypres.

Our stay here was very happy indeed. We were the first Australian troops to be billeted there and the people were very good and kind to us. Our platoon was billeted in a good barn with plenty of straw and Madam and her daughters could not do enough for us.

She had beautiful grapes growing which we used to buy at a franc (ten pence) per lb. It speaks volumes for the Aussies here when the people's fruit was quite safe and none of it was stolen by the troops.

The beautiful stream flowing through the village was great and many a good swim we enjoyed after coming back hot from the parade ground or a route march. No costumes were required and it was a common sight to see several hundred Aussies swimming in the stream near where the bridge crossed it in the main street.

My brother's battalion (41st) was billeted in an old paper mill close by and I often saw him.

I also visited the towns of Lumbres, Wavrans and Wizurnes and the fine old, ancient and interesting city of St Omer.

In peace time this city contained 90,000 inhabitants. Its Cathedral was majestic and was remembered by me for its famous clock inside, over the main door. The Cathedral of St. Omer may bring back memories of some other things to some soldiers who may read this.

One day we were marched to Flamburelles and were reviewed by Sir Douglas Haig.

We had plenty of severe drilling here and I was transferred to the rifle grenadiers section.

A regiment of Portuguese soldiers were camped close by. They used to walk through our village and some of our men used to call them the "Pork and Beans". They resented this and reported it to our Commander, so we were marched on the parade ground one day and given a severe reprimand - being reminded that the Portuguese were the oldest allies of England. However, they didn't prove themselves very good soldiers during the big German offensive of March 1918.

 

YPRES

 

BATTLE OF BROODESEINDE AS REPORTED IN THE CLARION

BATTLE OF BROODESEINDE YPRES 4TH - 6TH OCTOBER 1917

"SPECIAL FOR "THE CLARION"

By PRIVATE VERDI SCHWINGHAMMER "B" COY 42ND BATT AIF five weeks preceding the actual 'stunts" were very happily spent by us at Remilly (a small French village, away from the rear of the guns, where inhabitants were very kind to us.) During this time we were engaged in a certain amount of drill - enough to keep our bodies fit - and also had several practice stunts over country which was then thought to be similar to that on which the real stunt was to be done.

These practices were supplemented by lectures explaining in detail our future operation.

One night, just as we were settling down to sleep in our billets, the order came to be ready to move up towards the line, early next morning. This news had the effect of a general stir and the next couple of hours were spent ^~ packing our packs and getting things in general ready.

Next morning we were up early and after a good breakfast - and having said goodbye to the hospitable proprietress - Madame - of our billets ( who brought us apples, wine etc., as parting gifts - we started on our memorable march of 42 kilos, which occupied three days and taxed our endurance qualities to the utmost.

Poperinghe (Belgium) was now our location and we remained here five days, resting our bodies and feet in particular, which latter suffered most through the long march.

Whilst here, " Fritz" came over regular every night and bombed the town and camps very close to our tents ( fragments of shell came through the canvas) and also dropped one in the machine gunners camp which adjoined ours, causing the death of many brave Australians. That night many bombs were also dropped on the town, doing great damage and killing many civilians.

Early every morning we could hear our guns bombarding "Fritz's" positions, prior to our troops attacking.

At last the afternoon came for us to move up and we were told - for the first time - that our particular attack was to take place two mornings after. We were "fell in" and shown an excellent photographic map (also a model) taken by aeroplane of the country we were to advance over and also our objectives - the little woods found out being shown very plainly on it. After having all our extra "tools" etc., given us

(THE BATTLE OF BROODSEINDE 4th - 6th OCTOBER 1917

Our five weeks happy stay in the village of Remilly came abruptly to an end one night when the Sergeant came and awakened us at about 3 o'clock and told us to get up and be ready to move off in a couple of hours' time.

This news had the effect of a general stir and we were busy packing our packs and getting things in general ready.

After a hurried breakfast and having said 'au revoir" to the hospitable proprietress - Madame- of our billets (who brought us wine, apples, etc. as parting gifts) at daybreak we started on our memorable march of 42 kilos which occupied three days and taxed our endurance qualities to the limit.

Poperinge (Belgium) was now our location and we remained here five days, resting our bodies and feet in particular - which latter - suffered most through the long march.

Whilst here, "Fritz" came over regularly every night in his aeroplanes and bombed the town and camps.

One night he dropped two bombs close to our tents (fragments coming through the canvas) and also dropped a bomb on the machine gunners' camp - which adjoined ours - causing the death of 36 Australian soldiers.

That night, many bombs were also dropped on the town doing great damage and killing many civilians and soldiers.

Every morning we could hear our guns bombarding the enemy's positions prior to our troops attacking.

One afternoon, our procedure in the battle was explained to us and we were shown an aeroplane photograph (and a medal) of the country we were to attack and advance over. Our objectives; the little woods, swamps and ruined buildings were very plainly shown on the photographs.

On the 2nd October, we were told that our attack was to take place two mornings after - on the 4th.

The various Chaplains came and gave us church services in the open on the parade ground.

Then, after a good meal we began packing up. All our extra "tools" etc. were given to us; such as 150 rounds small ammunition, - and because I was a rifle grenadier, a bag containing 8 Mill's bombs and ten rods - eight sand bags, shovels, two days' rations, etc.

We marched to the Poperinghe railway station and entrained for Ypres. An hour's journey brought us to the ruined Asylum near Ypres (that was as far as the train could go as the Ypres Railway Station had been blown to pieces) where we disentrained and marched single file ( on account of the huge amount of traffic on the roads) through the ruined city to an open piece of ground at the back of the Madeline Cemetery where we bivouacked for the night.

Just in front of us were our eighteen pounder batteries which kept "barking" (firing) all night and on our right was a huge naval gun which fired at regular intervals.

German planes came over during the night, dropping bombs and raining machine gun bullets on us but none took effect in our locality.

Daylight revealed a great number of Australians camped on either side of us and we walked amongst the various Battalions to see if there were any that we knew. We were told to rest ourselves that day - which we did, with the exception of walking down to the water point at Ypres to refill our water bottles.

This gave us the opportunity of seeing the ruins of the Cathedral and Cloth Hall (which was one of the finest buildings in Europe before it was destroyed by the Germans.)

The amount of traffic going up to the lines was tremendous;- a continual stream of ammunition lorries, food lorries, water carts, cannons ( some drawn by mules, some by lorries), Red Cross Ambulances, etc. etc. and thousands of troops wending their way up.

No wonder that some of those thoroughfares to the lines were called after those of London, such as "Hyde Park Corner", "The Strand" etc., and as far as traffic was concerned, they didn't belie their names.

At dusk, we were given a hot meal, for some the last on this earth, for others, the last hot ones for four days and, after a final talk given us by our Captain and the Chaplains, we commenced the approach march to the line.

It was now 9 p.m. and all were in good spirits and quite cheerful.

Physically, we were fit and alert and ready for battle. How different we were to be less than twelve hours later.

Men do not go into battle sad and gloomy as many civilians wrongly imagine. They are quite the opposite even though they know the dreadful things they have to face and that some of them are going to their death.

Men do not go into battle sad and gloomy as many civilians wrongly imagine. They are quite the opposite even though they know the dreadful things they have to face and that some of them are going to their death.

We passed along what seemed an endless trunk of duckboards, "keeping in touch" - which was very necessary - if we were not to get lost. We had our first "rest" (a few minutes' halt) just in front of our batteries which were firing spasmodically.

After resuming the march again, there were frequent halts caused through broken duckboards with men slipping off into the mud and getting bogged. At several of these unofficial halts the followings, amongst others, would be heard; "Put out that ....... cigarette". The response from the smoker would be; "Oh, he's windy" or "he's got the wind up".

I am a non smoker ( the same as quite a number of the soldiers were) so I cannot describe the comfort or ease of mind which the men said that smoking gave them when in danger or sitting under bombardment. I always drew my cigarette issues and put them in my gas bag and the men always knew where they could get a smoke.

A few shells were now falling pretty close to us and the next stop was close to a "pill box" (captured German dug-out) near which, to my surprise, was a fire, from the light of which one could see several dead lying about.

We were now on ground which, a few days' previously, had been in the enemy's possession and the dead had not yet been buried.

Machine gun bullets were now hissing overhead as "Fritz" occasionally "rattled" his machine guns. We were told to keep very still when an enemy verey light went up as it is practically impossible to make out stationary objects when verey lights are sent up, but the slightest movement is easily noticed.

After a while it was found that we were on the wrong track and the order; "About Turn" came along which meant going back a considerable distance the way we had come. Eventually the right track was found and we continued moving onwards.

Shells were now falling amongst us and we took shelter, that is, huddled together in shell holes, until the shelling ceased. The next movement brought us closer up and the enemy lights now seemed almost upon us.

He said to me, just a few minutes before he was killed; " Well, I have been used to the bush all my life, sleeping amongst the dingoes, etc. and I was never afraid before, but I feel frightened tonight."

As we were getting into position, a bullet got one of our men close to me, killing him instantly. We were all sorry that poor old "brumby" (that was the name we called him) had fallen. He came from the backblocks of Queensland and was a rough diamond but had a good heart and was popular amongst us. He was uneducated and couldn't write, and I used to write his "love letters" to his girl in Queensland for him. He said to me, just a few minutes before he was killed; " Well, I have been used to the bush all my life, sleeping amongst the dingoes, etc. and I was never afraid before, but I feel frightened tonight." We assured him that everything would be all right, but he fell dead from a bullet soon afterwards. Such is war!

A corporal in charge of our platoon told us to make ourselves comfortable. I said "Where are the trenches?" (having pictured in my mind, well made and comfortable trenches which we generally occupied when holding the line.)

He replied; "These are the trenches." Merely a series of shell holes filled with water.

Our tape was laid in a line in front of them. A white tape was generally laid down in front of the trenches to keep us in line so that we could all advance together when the battle commenced.

We were now glad to rest our weary limbs, even if it were only a muddy shell hole, it being now 3 a.m. The approach march having occupied 6 hours.

In passing, I may say that this was my first "Hop Over" (battle) - although I had been up to the line on working parties before - and I was quite fresh, in fact, quite excited and had no idea of the dangers and didn't realise what was ahead of us and what we had to go through.

The Officers and N.C.O.'s were now busy seeing that the various sections were all in order and in their proper positions. The Germans were only about two hundred yards in front of us and they were continually firing flares (verey lights) which lighted up no-man's-land splendidly.

It is a wonderful and very pretty sight to have seen the many coloured lights which the Germans (and we too) used to illuminate no-man's-land and also for signal purposes. We also used to say that the Germans had the contract for lighting up no-man's-land, thereby saving us the trouble and expense.

White and gold lights were used for illumination and red and green for signals.

A civil display of fireworks could not equal the "free" exhibitions we used to witness nightly, and it could have gladdened the heart of many children to have seen them.

A civil display of fireworks could not equal the "free" exhibitions we used to witness nightly, and it could have gladdened the heart of many children to have seen them.

A corporal and I shared a shell hole between us. He said to me; "I am going to have a little snooze. Wake me at 5 a.m." This appeared to me to be very brave to even think of sleep under such conditions, but he was very weary and also an old soldier and had been in several battles.

However, he didn't get his desired snooze.

The shells were falling more often and getting uncomfortably close. One burst not very far from us giving us a shaking and covering us with mud so we crept further out into another shell hole.

As the lights went up I could see figures in single file in front of us, whom I thought were Germans, but were only the British troops then "holding the line" being relieved by us preparatory to the attack.

About half past five, I saw many red and green lights go up from the German positions and remarked to the corporal how pretty they looked.

He said; ' Now we are in for it!" "The Germans have taken a tumble that we are going to attack them and they are sending up their S.O.S. ( Save Our Souls) signals to their gunners."

Almost immediately, a heavy barrage (many cannons firing together) descended on our positions and continued until our barrage opened up half an hour later.

the Corporal remarked that the "Minnies" (nickname for the German Trench Mortar - Minen Werfer - a "dreadful weapon") were coming over. At that time I didn't know anything about them. Now I do!

We could hear "Stretcher Bearer" being called out as casualties occurred, those closest to the railway lines suffering heavily. The last hour previous to hopping over seemed to me to be the longest that I have ever experienced and I was continually looking at my luminous watch to see the time.

All one's past life seemed to be pictured in one's mind during that short period and our thoughts were naturally of home and our loved ones and also what the future would bring forth.

Just as day was breaking, zero hour, 5.55 a.m. arrived, and, as if by magic, our guns opened up and we rushed forward and commenced the attack.

It was said we had one eighteen pounder battery every 25 yards, on a front of several miles, besides many larger guns and hundreds of machine guns and Lewis guns that morning. Imagine all these firing together.

Our barrage seemed almost to silence the German guns.

For the first five minutes or so, I could remember nothing, but after I had collected myself, found myself going automatically forward with my section.

After hopping over I saw no more of my Corporal, but afterwards I learned that he had his right leg blown off and I am glad to say that he recovered and returned to Australia.

It was now, pretty light and the scene which confronted us I will never forget nor could I adequately describe it.

It seemed as if hell had been let loose on earth. The ground was shaking and the air was hot and full of the smell of powder from the guns.

The noise was terrible.

Dead and wounded were lying everywhere and as far as one could see on either side was a mass of soldiers moving forward behind the barrage.

Shells were falling in front of us and amongst us and earth was being thrown up into the air. In front of us our barrage was slowly creeping forward, the sight of which was one of awe inspiring grandeur. Behind and amongst us a few "shorts" ( our own shells which fall short amongst us) and some German shells were falling.

I saw one shell fall among a group of men, seeing human limbs, etc. being hurled into the air.

After I had gone a few hundred yards I came across a group of our own "C" Company men, lying in a group, all badly wounded. I knelt down and found one of them to be our Lieutenant whom I made as comfortable as possible and gave him some whisky which he carried in his water bottle. He (Lieutenant Ballard) afterwards died.

Also gave the others some water, emptying my own water bottle in doing so, but we could always get plenty of water after a battle by taking the water bottles from the dead soldiers.

Whilst I was thus engaged, our Captain happened to pass by and sharply told me to advance and get on with our platoon and leave this kind of work to the Army Medical Corps. However, this rebuff, which was quite military and correct, did not prevent me from assisting some more of my wounded comrades further on. The Red Cross had more than they could do to cope with the wounded.

We were now getting close to a German Pill Box which was rushed and captured. By now, Germans were running towards us, surrendering (from the various Pill Boxes that had been captured.) A lot of them put up their hands and shouted "Mercy Kamerads". Some of them were waving Red Cross and white flags and, as they passed us, they were relieved of any valuables they possessed. Souveniring the enemy being a strong characteristic of the Australians. One German ran out of a shell hole to me, handed me his watch - which on the spur of the moment, I took - but afterwards was sorry for taking it, because I felt if ever I was taken prisoner, I would not like my watch to be taken from me.

I came across several of our men badly wounded (some with arms and legs off etc.) but the way they bore their pain was wonderful - no complaining or grumbling. It was a frequent sight to see a wounded German and a wounded Aussie helping each other to get to the advanced dressing station.

A shell burst near us and a piece cut through my puttee and made a small flesh wound as big as a sixpence. It was hardly worth taking notice of at the time and it eventually healed up, but afterwards gave me a lot of trouble, as it was poisoned. It broke out afterwards and I had a lot of hospital in France and England with it. It still breaks out periodically and I receive a war pension for it.*

* To his dying day, Verdi carried this wound as a suppurating ulcerous mess on his inside left leg, just above the ankle. When he would call to visit, he would always be asked; "how's the leg?" and without fail, he'd unwrap the bandage and show the enquirer. It never seemed any worse and it never seemed any better. It was always horrible. How he had been accepted for service in the Second World War is beyond me.

By now, I had lost my section, in fact had got right away from my Battalion (which I could tell by the various distinguishing marks that each battalion wore - generally coloured patches on the backs of our tunics.)

In my endeavours to find my Battalion I got bogged in a small swamp where there were many others - some of them wounded. I managed to free myself and found my Battalion again.

During all this time, we were gradually advancing and shell fragments and machine gun and rifle bullets were flying all around us. When one considers the amount of material that is hurled around in a small space during a battle, it is surprising to see the number of soldiers who come out alive and unwounded.

At last we reached our objective and on looking at my watch, found it was 9 a.m. - three hours since the attack commenced but it didn't seem that long.

Ours was the second - or middle objective.

The 41st battalion was advancing through ours and going forward two hundred yards and the 44th (was) digging in three hundred yards behind us.

The Platoon Sergeant showed us where to dig and told us to hurry as our barrage was only timed to play in front of us just long enough to give us a little protection while digging in.

Digging our trenches proved very easy as the ground was soft, in fact, too soft - used to fall in - and when we were down three feet, we came to water so the trenches were soon quagmires and we were wallowing in them like a lot of pigs.

While digging in several were killed and one of our young officers - one of the most popular and best loved men in the Battalion (Lieutenant Hart) - was killed by a bullet only a few feet from me.

His parents have erected a fine memorial to him - which I have seen - in the Southport School Chapel - where he was educated.

Our trench was right in front of a Pill Box which was made into Company Headquarters.

Several of our men were now not with us, many having been killed, others wounded.

Our contact aeroplane flew overhead and we lit the flares (which had been supplied to us) to show our positions to the plane. After our barrage ceased, intermittent fire was carried on by the artillery of both sides all day.

The first counter attack was launched by the Germans at 7 p.m. which was repulsed by us without even leaving the trenches. When the attack was made, we put up our S.O.S. signals which brought down from our batteries and machine guns a wonderful barrage.

Runners were busy throughout the night keeping in touch with the different Companies and Platoons and carrying important messages.

I could not but help admire their coolness and bravery in doing their work under a continual bombardment.

About three o'clock in the morning a pal and myself were detailed to carry a dead Aussie from the Pill Box into a shell hole - which we did. On our return we were sent to help carry a stretcher case to the advanced dressing station which was a captured Pill Box about 100 yards behind our trench. This proved very difficult as the night was dark, the mud very bad, the shells bursting all around us. But we succeeded all right.

On our way back we were told to go over near the ruined Zonnebeke railway station and get the rations, but as we could not find any rations there, we went back to our trenches to find that the rations were already there - brought by the ration carriers.

It was now daylight. Our second day.

A German plane flew over our trenches, so low that we could see the face of the aviator as he looked over from his machine. He dropped lights to show his artillery where our positions were, and that night, the Germans put down on us a terrific bombardment.

About midday the Sergeant came and asked for two volunteers to carry a serious stretcher case from the 41st Battalion (in front of us) to the dressing station. A pal and myself went and arrived safely at the trench. We started to carry the wounded chap on an oil sheet but eventually had to wait for a stretcher. After arriving at the dressing station we sat down to drink some tea and have some biscuits, which the gunners had given us.

Our eighteen pounder batteries were firing close by and whilst we were watching one fire, a shell burst prematurely killing an English Officer and wounding several mules. Nothing is perfect and a lot of our shells used to explode prematurely.

I consider that stretcher bearers, generally speaking, are the greatest heroes in a battle, They, in my opinion, have the most dangerous and strenuous work to perform, and too much praise cannot be given them for the noble and excellent work which they carry out.

It was dusk when we got back to our trench and we were told to get ready and pack up as we were to be relieved that night. But we were not relieved that night and I think we ought to have considered ourselves lucky that we weren't.

The Hun that night put down a terrific bombardment on us which lasted all night and very many of our men were killed or wounded. A shell burst on the top of our trench, blowing it in and buried my body. My head was just protruding. A couple of pals (one, since killed) dug me out and freed me. I escaped without a scratch with the exception of a severe shaking. After this, my nerves went to pieces.

Sitting under a bombardment plays havoc with one's nerves and a good rest and quietness is the only cure for this.

At last daylight dawned and we prepared to move out. Started at 9 a.m. and hurried past a corner which was continually being shelled and where many casualties had occurred. Each side of the track was strewn with hundreds of dead Tommies killed going in to relieve another company the previous night as originally intended.

In places the dead and equipment (the latter discarded by the wounded as they evacuated) were piled feet high, so great were the casualties.

Tired, hungry and sleepy (having had no sleep for three days and nights) we struggled along, through mud, slush and dead, not resting until we got back a considerable distance and then fairly safe.

Coming out of the line is not the same as going in.

When going in we are in order and kept together, but coming out it is every man for himself to get along the best way he can.

We were now on the never to be forgotten Menin Road which was strewn with thousands of dead soldiers and mules.

After several rests, another digger and myself reached the outskirts of Ypres where the Y.M.C.A. (Young Men's Christian Association) gave us hot cocoa, biscuits, chocolates and cigarettes. Strengthened by these we continued on and eventually reached the ruined asylum where the rest of the Battalion had already arrived. We were given a real good hot meal of bully beef stew which made new men of us.

It was now raining heavily and a seven kilo march was ahead of us. Our Captain very kindly and thoughtfully gave myself and a mate a lift on one of the cookers.

Huts on the outskirts of Poperinghe were reached at dark, when we were given another hot meal, our packs and several blankets - which one does not take into battle with them - only when holding the line.

Then followed two good days' rest (we slept most of the time) before going back again - this time to hold the line.

The roll was called and showed to what extent the battle had cost us in wounded and valuable lives.

In conclusion may I say the Battle was a success, that is, all our objectives were gained and held and the total number of prisoners taken by the Australians that day was well over four thousand.

The foregoing is a description of the Battle of Broodseinde (Ypres) written by No. 2639, Private Verdi G. Schwinghammer, "C" Company, 42nd Battalion A.I.F. which was awarded the third prize of 100 francs at the Third Australian Divisional Essay Competition, held after the Armistice at St Maxent, near Abbeville, France. There were eighty three entries.

HOLDING THE LINE

On 18th October, 1917, we marched to Abraham Heights and held the line for several days. We were under continual bombardment all the time and many were killed or wounded. It was cold and wet weather and we were all "fed up" but nothing out of the routine of trench warfare happened.

I got quite sick and knocked up and was ordered out of the line to the details camp near Ypres cemetery for a day or two's rest. As I got no better I was sent to the Field Ambulance in the ruins of the Cloth Hall and the Dr who examined me said that I was suffering from shell shock - although not very serious - and required a few week's rest.

We were sent in Red Cross motor cars to the Canadian Hospital at Poperinghe.

During the night the Germans bombed the hospital and one sister and a couple of patients were killed.

After a couple of days here we were taken in a Red Cross train through Calais to the British Red Cross Hospital at Wimereux, Bologne. This was a fine hospital and beautifully situated near the beach.

They gave me a good hot meal then a hot bath and after being given a pair of pyjamas was sent to bed where I remained for ten days, sleeping most of the time. It was just wonderful to be clean and get a good rest in bed with pyjamas and sheets and good food and quietness.

The sisters were very good to us, I picked up wonderfully and was soon on the road to recovery again and was sent to the Convalescent Hospital on the hill adjoining Napoleon's great monument. This was a statue of Napoleon on a column 150 feet high. He was facing Europe - looking at all the territory he had captured. Had his back to England.

It was Napoleon's intention to have this statue erected facing England when he conquered it ( he designed this monument before Waterloo) but the French were honest and when he did not conquer England, they erected the monument with his back to England.

After a week here I was sent by train to Le Havre for a day, then by train to Caestre where I rejoined my Battalion which was out of the line, resting.

 

DRILLING AND HOLDING LINE

It was now snowing continually and bitterly cold. One day, my cousin, Bernie Johnson came up from the 25th Battalion to see me. He was afterwards killed in a raid at Morlancourt on 10th June 1918.

I received large mail here (over 40 letters and several parcels.)

Working parties, digging trenches for cables, now occupied our time I shall never forget the frozen ground when the ice had to be broken with a pick before we could start to dig.

The one bright spot here was the Y.M.C.A. That fine man, the Presbyterian Padre Clark was in charge.

While here, the news came through that the Australians had captured Jerusalem and we celebrated the event.

Part of the Battalion now went to a small village called Tilques (20 kilos distant) for a week's rifle practice. While we were away at Tilques one day, a German plane dropped bombs on the parade ground, killing many. One of the bombs dropped near the Y.M.C.A. hut, blowing the end off it and damaging the piano beyond repair.

We got another piano and on our return had sing-songs every night. We used to get a free cup of cocoa or coffee and some biscuits before we went to our huts to sleep.

Much to our regret, we marched to Waterlands on 20th December and stayed at this cold miserable camp for a few days. We went to Nieppe several times. This place was in ruins.

Then on Christmas Eve we marched into the line at Bois Grenier (Armentieres) and it was a fairly quiet sector here. Everything was covered with snow.

On Christmas Eve night we could hear the Germans singing and playing their musical instruments in the trenches. Very few shells came over for a few days.

On Christmas Day the C. of E. Chaplain in our Brigade - we had no C. of E. Chaplain in our Battalion, came into the front lines and gave us Holy Communion.

We were each given a tin of fruit and a tin of preserved sausages for our Christmas dinner. My pal and I were hungry so we opened both tins and ate half the contents for breakfast, putting the remainder - in the tin - on a shelf in the dugout, covering them with a board with a stone on it.

The rats were very bad in the trenches and dugouts. As we were off duty, we went to sleep for a couple of hours and on waking and going to get our dinner, found that the rats had knocked off the coverings and had eaten everything. So we had dry biscuits for our Christmas Dinner of 1917.

Christmas Day in the trenches was quiet with the exception of an amusing episode. It was moonlit. One of the men thought he could see Germans creeping towards us in front of the trench. Of course, when one saw anything, we all imagined we could see the same thing. So we threw several bombs over in the direction where we thought the Germans were and fired several shots, but nothing happened.

Next morning, through the periscope, we could see the tops of several stumps. These were what we had thought were Germans the night before. It appears that when we first occupied this trench the stumps were completely covered with snow, but as the snow melted, it left the tops exposed - and these looked like men creeping forward.

On Boxing Night I had a narrow escape. One of the men was cleaning his rifle on the step of the trench. I was on duty standing up close by. He thought the rifle was unloaded. It wasn't. The trigger caught and it went off, the bullet whizzing just past my left ear and grazing it. A narrow escape!

We used to have different pass words every night. One night, one of the men guarding the communication trench got windy and nearly killed an officer. The guard called out to the officer for the pass word, but as he didn't reply quickly enough, the guard thought he was one of the enemy and fired at him. It took effect in the neck, just missing the vein. It was only a slight wound and the officer recovered.

Our officer on many occasions told me not to put my head too far over the trench when of duty on moonlight nights, as I was liable to be sniped at, but I like to know what was going on in front of us when I was on duty. I had the reputation of having good sight and good hearing - very little escaped being seen or heard by me. One night I thought I heard a noise in the wire in front of us, so when the officer came along, I reported it to him. He and I then crawled out over the top of the trench and crept towards the wire when all of a sudden several large rats rushed out of the wire. It was the rats making the noise.

On New Year's Eve we were relieved and marched back to Water land Camp. Had a good New Year's Dinner here, supplied by the Australian Comforts Fund.

Nearly every night we used to go up to the line on working parties. The tramp through the great deserted city of Armentieres every night became very tiresome. We used to march through the deserted city ( which was not damaged very much - the inhabitants had evacuated it ) - with grass growing in the streets and tramcars, etc. rusting on the rails, to the ruined lunatic asylum and the, after a rest, go single file to the line a few hundred yards away and start work on the digging of trenches. Several of our men were wounded on these parties but none killed.

On 12th January, 1918, we marched over the frozen cobblestone roads to Loore (many were the spills and busters we got through slipping on the ice!) There we were billeted in circular low roofed huts. We could lie in our huts here and see the huge square tower of the church with its great chiming clock - so we always knew the time.

There were some very good estaminets (hotels) here, also eating houses with the usual eggs and chips and coffee, which was much sought after by the troops. The few civilians who had remained in the town did great business with the troops. We were in Belgium now and some of the civilians would do anything for money. They used to charge us exorbitant prices for anything we bought and were real profiteers.

When we remonstrated with them about their prices the inevitable reply was c'est la guerre (it's the war!) A lot of them were spies. Some of them used to lock their pumps so we couldn't get water, but we soon got over this difficulty. We used to get a Mills bomb and blow the lock off and get the water that way. Of course, the Belgians made a great fuss of this and reported us to Headquarters, but the officers took no notice of them.

Some of the Belgians here were caught and shot as spies. They ploughed the fields with one black and one grey horse etc. On different days they would change the position of the horses, thereby giving signals to German planes which flew over very low while our planes were away,

We used to go into Bailleul a lot. During the 'break through' of March 1918, Loore and Bailleul were both in no-man's-land and very heavy fighting took place there.

Working parties at Whychittie Ridge (daylight working parties) were performed by us for a week and the all one week we were on fatigue unloading trucks of coal and stone.

Near Loore was a large Convent where about fifty orphan Belgian children were looked after by the Nuns. We used to go down there of a night and in the big school hall (with its darkened windows and a few candles to light it up) have a happy time. The Nuns could speak English and they taught the orphan children to sing "God Save The King" and "Tipperary" in English.

Some of the men taught the orphan boys to box and they gave us some fine exhibitions. Food was very scarce but the Nuns would never let us go away without giving us a drink of wine or beer and we returned their kindness by giving them many little things that we could spare and which were a luxury to them. A piece of white bread was worth its weight in gold to them.

Major Willie Redmond - who died of wounds - was buried in the Convent grounds and we saw his grave. It snowed nearly all the time we were here. I was then transferred to the Lewis Gun Section.

On the 26th January we marched up to the front line again to near Ploeegg Steert Wood. We occupied the line for nearly four weeks without a break.

A party of us were sent out of the line one day back to Romarin Camp on fatigue. We halted for a rest on our way out at a post known as Lancashire Farm. Met some Aussies here who were coming in. Got into conversation with them and they proved to be Sir William (General) Birdwood and party.

Birdwood didn't look much like a General. He had old clothes on, covered with mud and his steel hat and gas helmet strapped on. We saluted and had a few words with him and told him it was quiet up the line and only a few shells coming over.

I believe he spent the whole day in the trenches inspecting and visiting the various headquarters. Some people said that Generals never exposed themselves to danger, but here is one instance.

For a week, I was one of the food carriers up to the front line. We (eight of us) had a dugout in the reserve trench. As soon as it got dark we went to the cookhouse where large dixies of stew and tea were strapped to our backs and we trudged up the communications trench about 300 yards to the front line. At midnight we had to bring up hot coffee and again at daylight the troops' breakfast. We could then sleep or rest in the dugout all day. We couldn't move about in daylight as the position was too exposed and the men in the front line had to do without food from sunrise till sundown.

One night we went up to the front line before it was quite dark and had a narrow escape. There was an opening in the communication trench (not noticed by us at the time) on which the Germans had one of their guns trained. This particular night, as we were passing, they put a burst of shot into us. We ducked in all directions and one of the bullets hit the steel hat of my pal, but bounced off without hurting him. Thereafter we went up no more till it was quite dark.

The cookhouses were always shifting their possies in the trenches as very often the smoke would put them away and they would be blown up by the enemy shells trained on them. It did not matter how careful they were, the smoke from them could be very often seen by the enemy.

One of the Italian cooks was "Bony" Ford from South Grafton who often gave us a dixie of tea and a little tin of fat (which was much relished by us to put on our bread) when we were out of the line.

One day a huge shell fell within a short distance from us but luckily it was a dud and didn't explode - otherwise we would all have been blown to pieces.

We then went to the front line again and held it for ten days and some of the other men had a turn at food carrying. Some of us were picked for patrol duty at night but I always missed this.

There was a little stream at the back of our trench with beautiful running water and we used to enjoy the water from it - washing and drinking - but one day we found several dead Germans and Aussies in it. (Who had not been buried.)

Thereafter we always waited for the official army water which came up to us in benzine cans but nearly always tasted of benzine.

As I had now been in France for nine months without leave and had the necessary money to my credit in my pay book, I was granted fourteen days leave to England. The last night in the trench before going on leave we were hoping not to get killed or wounded and it was with light and thankful hearts that we got clear of the trenches and danger the morning we started to go on leave.

ENGLAND

On March 1st 1918, four of us left the trenches for fourteen days leave in England. We went to the Red Cross Dressing Station with our leave passes and were examined by the Doctor and certified as being free from vermin and scabies. Then marched to Romaine camp. Slept there that night with some New Zealanders in their tent.

We were up early next morning and marched to Steenwerck Had to wait all day here but in the afternoon got a troop train, which was literally packed and travelled through a snow storm till midnight, when we reached Calais.

Marched to the great concentration camps there and reported ourselves. We were given a tent and had a good night's rest. Next morning we dumped our rifles and packs and were given our steamer passes to England.

But a terrible gale had been raging in the Channel, lashing the sea and washing a lot of the stationary mines away from their moorings, which, of course, proved a great danger to shipping. We were delayed here three days while the mine sweepers cleared the Channel of them.

In the meantime, we had a god look over the fine old city of Calais, which at one time, belonged to England. Saw all the historical places associated with Joan of Arc, etc.

On the morning of the third day we marched to the pier and boarded a steamer. It was crowded with troops going on leave and we had a fine run across the Channel of two hours.

The great British warships were cruising about and destroyers were flitting everywhere. We travelled a "zig zag" course through a lane of battleships, cruisers and destroyers. Saw the Queen Elizabeth which was at that time, the largest battleship in the world.

Arrived at Dover at 1 p.m. and took train to London, arriving there at 3 p.m.

Went to the Australian Army Headquarters where we were given a new suit of clothes, boots, hat, etc. and after a shave, hot bath and a good meal, booked our beds at the A.I.F. War Chest Club where I always stayed when in London.

The A.I.F. War Chest Club was a large building in Westminster - near the Australian Headquarters - and was run by the British and Australian ladies in London for the Australian troops.

It had 500 beds in large dormitories and had every convenience, good meals could be obtained by the troops - mostly food supplied by the Australian people.

We were very happy as we were away from the trenches and had fourteen days leave ahead of us. I had 25 in my pay book which had been cabled over from Australia by my mother.

That night we went to the "Maid of the Mountains" in Daly's Theatre, seeing Josie Collins in the name part.

We heard anti-aircraft guns booming and saw the people rushing about in the darkened streets to the tube stations for shelter. The church bells were ringing (signals for people to take shelter) and trains, busses and everything came to a standstill. Police were patrolling the streets on bicycles with an electric placard on their back "TAKE COVER". We walked to the War Chest Club where we found a lot of the staff (women) huddled together in the basement, but as we were tired we went to bed and slept soundly through it all. Next morning we read that 178 people had been killed the previous night by bombs from the German planes.

No lights were exposed in the shop windows in London and the streets were only dimly lit. A few street lamps at long intervals were alight, but with a pale blue light, shaded downwards and busses carried no lights at all. It was wonderful how the traffic got about in the darkened streets. Of course, the tubes (being underground) were brilliantly lit up.

The next morning we went to Westminster Roman Catholic Cathedral and saw the body of the great Irish patriot - John Redmond - who had died the day before and whose body was lying in state in the cathedral, before being transferred across to Ireland for burial. this is a modern Cathedral, built from 1905 - 1910 and costing 250,000, but a very imposing structure of Byzantine architecture (with a campanile 295 feet high.) The Duke of Norfolk (the Premier Duke of England) supplied most of the money for its erection.

For three days we were busy seeing the sights of London and one night left London in the "Flying Scotsman" and arrived next morning in Edinburgh - a 400 mile non stop run. The water is scooped up as the train travels along and the mails were caught from hooks as the train passed through the stations.

Edinburgh is a very beautiful city and the Scotch people couldn't do enough for us.

Saw the great Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, John Knox' birthplace and went by bus one day and saw the great Firth of Forth bridge. The North Sea Squadron of Battleships were at anchor here and we saw H.M.A.S. Australia which was amongst them.

Left Edinburgh and took train back to York where I spent a day and night as the guest of Sir Charles Milner. His sister, Miss Edith Milner - Sir Charles was a bachelor - did his entertaining for him and she was called the Soldier's mother. She wrote to my own mother a beautiful letter concerning me.

Saw through York Minster and all the interesting and historic things of that ancient city.

Then took the train back to London.

The same night a pal and myself went to Headquarters to get a pass to visit Ireland. We left London at 8. p.m. and arrived at Holyhead and boarded the Irish Mail Steamer at 3 a.m. Travelled a zig-zag course - with all lights out - across the Irish Channel, arriving at Kingston at daylight. Then took train to Dublin, fourteen miles away.

Had three days in Dublin seeing all the sights there. It is a fine city and brilliantly lit up - quite a contrast to the English and Scotch cities - as Ireland was too far away for air raids.

Food was plentiful as the Irish people were not rationed. The Irish people were also very kind to us.

We were invited one afternoon to a large, private mansion and had tea there, being received by butlers and waited upon by many servants.

We saw all the ruined buildings of the 1916 rebellion. Stayed at the Four Courts Hotel.

We were shown through St Patrick's Cathedral Trinity College (where we saw the famous book of Kells - one of the oldest books in existence, which was written by the monks and the crypt of St Michan's church etc.

We returned to Kingston and took the steamer across to London by the same route and after another two days' sight seeing in London (seeing Madame Tussauds famous waxworks, Whitehall, St James Palace, etc.) my leave was finished.

I was lucky to have had my leave because the day it terminated all leave from England and France was cancelled on account of the German break through.

I reported at Headquarters and left Victoria Station, London, next morning for Dover.

BATTLES OF THE SOMME - 1918

We left Dover by steamer on the 20th March and had a calm passage across the Channel to Calais. Stayed the night in the rest camp there.

That night, one of the biggest air raids on Calais took place. Our camps at Calais received a telephone message that the German planes had flown over Dunkirk on their way to Calais to bomb it. The signals in camp - to take cover - were given and we could hear the church bells in Calais ringing and the guns booming - signals to the inhabitants that an air raid was imminent and to take shelter.

It was a beautiful moonlight night, with no chance of our searchlights picking up the planes. Air raids seldom took place on dark nights. On a dark night the searchlights sweeping the skies could nearly always pick up a plane and hold it in the rays, thereby enabling our anti aircraft guns to aim at it and probably get it. But, on a moonlight night a plane could be a few hundred feet up and could not be seen although the noise from the plane could be heard. At night, in the moonlight, an aeroplane is like a silver butterfly in the sky and cannot be seen.

This night, the German planes came over in two relays and bombs were dropped on the Chinese Labour Camp (only about a hundred yards from our tent) killing 40 Chinese. They were too engrossed in playing pak-a-pu or some other gambling game to take shelter when the signals were given.

We had a narrow escape as the concussion from the bombs which fell on the Chinese Camp, blew our tent in, and it was covered with mud and debris.

Many civilians were also killed in Calais. One bomb that night fell on the beautiful Cathedral of Joan of Arc, badly damaging it.

The next day we marched to Calais railway station and entrained - travelled all day and arrived at St Omer at dusk. We marched to the barracks for the night and this city was also heavily bombed during the night, but no casualties occurred. The civilians took shelter in the basement of the Town Hall and the crypt of the Cathedral and the troops in the basement of the barracks.

Next morning I made enquiries and found that our Battalion had been relieved during my absence and was resting for three weeks at Lottenheim near Boulogne.

The R.T.O. ( Railway Transport Officer) directed us what train to take and we arrived at Lottenheim at 1 p.m. Here we found our Battalion resting on the station ready to entrain.

The air was full of rumours. We had not seen any papers for several days but were told that the enemy had broken through on a wide front and was advancing on Paris and Amiens and that the Australians were to be sent to the Somme to stop the advance there and prevent the enemy capturing Amiens and the Channel Ports. (The French were defending the roads to Paris.)

The Battalion had barely had a week of the three weeks rest but, nevertheless all were in good spirits and excited at the prospect of getting to the Somme and seeing new country as our Division, The Third, had never been to the Somme. Up till then all its fighting having taken place on the indescribable mud swamps of France and Belgium.

We left Lottenhein at 4p.m. and arrived at Caestre at 8 p.m.

They marched us several kilos to a farm near Steenvorde where we camped for the night. The next day we marched through Eccke (remembered by many of us as the place we once stayed a night at on our way to the Battle of Ypres) and Mont de Cats.

After a day's rest we marched all the following night and entrained for the Somme on the morning of 24th March. We travelled all day through devastated country (the result of the 1916 Somme Offensive) and arrived at Doullens at 4 p.m.

Great and feverish activity prevailed here.

Trains were arriving with troops every few minutes and the inhabitants were evacuating the town. We marched through the town and halted at an estaminet (hotel) where the French proprietor gave us all the beer and wine he had in stock before he left town. (It was much appreciated by the troops.)

That afternoon at the Doullens Mairie (Town Hall) a conference took place between the various Allied Generals and Premiers - Foch, Haig, Orlando, Clemenceau, Lloyd George etc and the Unity of Command was achieved, Marshall Foch being appointed Commander In Chief of the whole of the allied forces.

From now on the tide of the war changed in our favour and we commenced to push the enemy back after we had broken his last great effort.

About six kilos from Doullens we halted for a rest and were given a drink of tea.

Just after we left Doullens railway station a German plane flew over and bombed the station, killing and wounding a great many.

After resting till midnight, we boarded motor buses, travelled all night and reached the village of La Hussoye at daylight. We then started on the march again and knew that we must be getting close to the enemy as the horizon was lit from the flashes of the guns.

Many rumours were now going around and a great excitement prevailed here. I shall never forget the sight of the refugees fleeing from the villages. Some of them had carts, others wheelbarrows containing their belongings, whilst in many instances, cows, pigs and sheep were being led or driven. Sometimes a white haired cure (priest) would lift up his hands and bless us as we marched past - a touching and pathetic sight.

We eventually arrived at Heilly. Passed a few stragglers - Tommies - the remnants of Gough's British Fifth Army which had been overtaken by disaster. The citizens had evacuated Heilly before we arrived.

Whilst here we went into several of the houses and refreshed ourselves with what food we could find and wine, etc. of which there was plenty. Everything was as the people had left their homes - tables being laid ready for a meal etc.

We continued on from Heilly and crossed the river Ancre getting into the valley of the Somme itself. The engineers were busy mining the bridges in case occasion arose to blow them up. About midday we arrived at the pretty and peaceful village of Sailly-le-Sec and our Commander decided we should entrench here and make a stand against the enemy.

Scouts gave us the information that the enemy advance guard had reached to a position about three miles in front of us and was resting and reorganising.

Scouting planes of both sides were now active, flying about getting information.

An old trench system (made by the French at the beginning of the war) was converted by us into fairly good trenches but our dugouts were very poor and crude - a sheet of tin or a door from one of the houses in the village with plenty of straw at the bottom of the trench - these were our shelters.

Later on we made several visits to the houses and had our trenches decked with cushions, window curtains, etc. Our trench was only 100 yards in front of the village.

In the afternoon the Germans were observed in the village of Sailly Laurette (about a mile in front of us) and a patrol of British Cavalry was sent out to dislodge them, which they did with only one casualty to themselves. It was the first and only time that saw the Cavalry in action during the war and it was a fine sight.

(This comment obviously ignores the Australian Light Horse and the Signallers who fought on horseback in the "desert" campaigns during the Great War.)

The country where we were was really very beautiful. It consisted of green fields and crops of wheat etc. Flocks of sheep and cattle (which the French hadn't time to take away when they evacuated the village) browsed on the hills just in front of our trenches. The ground was free from shell holes and the absence of noise gave the place more an aspect of peace than of war.

This was all to be changed within forty eight hours.

We were all very tired after our five days marching etc. and all slept well that night - not a gun being fired. (Neither we nor the Germans had any big guns up ready to fire.) Of course, we kept watch as usual.

Next day we explored the village which contained some fine houses, well kept and beautifully furnished. The lovely clothes and family treasures (paintings, statues etc.) were fine. The Mayor's house way very nice and contained a magnificent piano.

The cellars were also full of wine - we filled our water bottles with it and also brought many bottles back to the trenches. Nothing to my mind is more refreshing than sweet red wine, especially when our drinking water was generally bad.

We got back to our trenches when it was dark and time for business. Had a quiet night. The next day was also very quiet and we could walk on the top and in front of the trenches without being fired on by the enemy.

Four days had now elapsed since the Germans had sat down to rest and reorganise after their great advance and victory. If they had kept going instead of resting and reorganising for these few days they very probably would have captured Amiens (which was their objective - 11 miles away) as there were practically no troops to block them.

But by this time we had many guns up, ready to fire and also plenty of troops.

The Hun now thought that he would resume his victorious march and capture Amiens but he did not succeed as his opponents were Australians who repeatedly hurled back as he made his attacks.

It was Easter Saturday, 30th March 1918, the nicest day we had had for over a month and the sun was shining beautifully. All the morning, things had been very quiet - not even a gun being fired. The only noise was from the aeroplanes as they cruised about the skies.

All my section were asleep in the rough dugouts and I happened to be on duty - keeping watch in the trench.

About midday the enemy suddenly opened up on us - putting down a terrific bombardment on a front of several miles - and commenced his attack.

We were all rather surprised at his audacity in attacking in broad daylight but he was evidently suffering from a swelled head owing to his previous great victory - an advance on a wide front several miles deep, capturing thousands of prisoners and much material and guns.

Of course the noise from the guns woke everyone up and there was a rush to the different positions in the trench. Our rifles were always ready for action (bayonets fixed) leaning against the parapet of the trench.

In less than two minutes our Lewis guns were at work, sweeping the ground in front of our trench with bullets and as usual, our gunners in reply to our S.O.S. signals, put down a great barrage on the German positions.

The enemy did not know exactly where our front line was and the shells directed against our particular trench fell wide of the mark, but he put down a terrific bombardment on Sailly-le-Sec and the village soon became a mass of flames and a heap of ruins. He also heavily bombarded our back areas to try to prevent reinforcements coming up to our assistance.

Our trench was slightly protected by a rise in the hill and was not as exposed as other parts of the Battalion front, but nevertheless bullets were whizzing around our heads the whole time that the battle was raging.

From a point in our trench, the observer could see the Germans massing ready for attack. They came in mass formations to the top of the hill in front of us and then spread out into single file, shoulder to shoulder in a wave, rushing forwards towards our trenches.

we were holding our own and hurling the enemy back as he repeatedly made fresh attacks

When they came over the hill they were excellent targets for our Lewis and machine guns, which mowed them down like flies. About two o'clock, the battle had reached its highest, but we were holding our own and hurling the enemy back as he repeatedly made fresh attacks.

There were many thrilling air fights during the progress of the battle and we saw several German and some of our own planes come down in flames.

About three o'clock he made his last attack and was again pushed back.

From then onwards just a few shells came over.

We were still in our trenches and hadn't lost an inch of ground although of course we suffered heavily and very many of our men were either killed or wounded, but the enemy losses were appalling. As the evening sun shone on the hills, one could see, even with the naked eye, (but with glasses, very plainly) thousands of dead Germans strewn on the sides of the hills.

Australians from every part of Australia took part in this engagement and many brave and heroic deeds were done by them that day. This was one of the decisive battles which saved Amiens, the others being fought around Villers Bretonneux, notably the battle of April 24th, 1918.

(We remained in these same trenches until we took the offensive and commenced to push the enemy back on the 4th of July.)

Next day, (Easter Sunday) was quiet and uneventful and I was one of a patrol party that night.

Easter Monday again broke fine and the Germans bombed our trenches from aeroplanes in daylight. They flew so low that we could easily distinguish the faces of the aviators as they peered over from their machines and on one occasion actually saw the bomb leave the plane. (The enemy used to come over while our planes were away.)

That night, I was again on a patrol. Our work was to go out to an unoccupied post near Sailly Laureate cemetery (which our men had dug the previous night) and see if the enemy had found and occupied it - a trap we laid for him. We crept out and when we got close to the post, lay down (with our rifles loaded, bayonets fixed, etc.) and a mills' bomb in one's pocket. Stayed in this position until midnight but saw no sign of the enemy and were then relieved by another patrol. We then marched back to a hill a couple of kilos behind Sailly-le-Sec, arriving there about 2 a.m.

We were very tired and just lay down on the ground, covered with oil sheets and slept soundly until morning, although it rained heavily all night. Three of us kept watch in turns in case gas shells came over. Next day we dug little holes in the side of the hill and made ourselves as comfortable as possible. Walked into Vaux-sur-Somme and got as much cider as we could carry away. It was nice and refreshing. Stayed there two days - it was raining all the time.

I was just coming off gas guard at daylight on the third morning when the Germans attacked the 5th Australian Division, who were then holding the front line. He shelled the back areas, where we were, very heavily and we had a rough time of it, many casualties occurring. Several of us went along a gully which he was not shelling for shelter. (Afterwards this same gully became called "Shrapnel Gully".)

Just as we got there a huge shell burst about fifty yards from us, covering us with debris and mud and a fragment of the shell flew past my face and cut the top off the nose of the chap next to me.

The order now came for us to get ready to go up to the front line and reinforce our troops. Some of us marched as far as the canal, when we were told that we would not be required as the 5th Australian Division had pushed the enemy back without further assistance.

That night several of us were detailed to cross the canal and look for any Tommy stragglers. Many amusing incidents occurred when crossing the canal in the flat bottomed punts - many of them capsizing - but the canal was not very deep although the water was very cold.

The next day we rested and at dark shifted further up onto the flat where we dug fresh trenches (reserve lines) and occupied them. Stayed here three days, resting and sleeping during the daytime and digging trenches at night.

One afternoon we were heavily shelled with whizz bangs (so called by us because when they were fired by the Germans we could hear the whizz and before we knew where we were, they had exploded - they travelled so quickly) and an officer and a private were killed. They had only that day returned from leave in England and had not been two minutes in the trench when they were killed.

Whilst here we had working parties of a night digging trenches on the hill near the great brick chimney which was a well known landmark to all Australians who were in these parts.

One night, a pal and I were detailed to go to Headquarters for the rum issue. We did not know the way and it was pitch dark, but at last we found Headquarters and brought back a large jar of rum. The officer gave us the compliment that he trusted us, as he knew we wouldn't drink the rum as some of the other men might have done if they had been sent for the rum issue. I never refused my rum issue in the trenches. We didn't get much, but I'm sure it did one good, although very many refused to take it.

On Saturday night, 7th April, we went to the front line again, occupying as a dugout an old tunnel which the French had constructed at the beginning of the war. It was deep, with a small entrance - one had to crawl on hands and knees to get into it- but was shell and bomb proof and it accommodated about fifty. One drawback was that it was very dark and damp.

We stayed here seven days, resting and sleeping during the daytime and patrolling during the night.

The nights were dark and the mud bad, but nothing eventful happened, although we had very many narrow escapes from being sniped by enemy machine gun bullets.

Also had our clothes torn to pieces as we were continually falling over in the dark amongst the barbed wire.

We could hear the Germans talking and singing out every night and I suppose they could hear us too.

We couldn't emerge from the tunnel during daylight as the position was too exposed and food could only be brought up to us at night. Altogether, we spent a very miserable week. We were all wet and soaked through, food was scarce, no cigarettes were available, we had no matches or candles and we were always in the dark.

I remember producing four packets of cigarettes from my gas bag on this occasion and handing them around amongst the men and they were greatly appreciated.

It was pitch dark in the tunnel, even in the daytime. I got very sick and knocked up and our officer told me and another chap, who was also pretty sick, to go out to the little village of Bonney and rest there for a few days.

As soon as night came on we started and walked until midnight, when we laid down in a gully near one of our eighteen pounder batteries and slept until daylight, even though a few enemy shells fell in the gully close by.

of course, most of our guns were firing most of the night but one soon gets used to noise and when one is war weary, we could sleep under any conditions and any amount of noise.

At daylight, we continued our journey but had very little strength left and no food. However, we struggled on and eventually reached Bonnay at midday. The civilians had evacuated it - it was about five miles from the line - but it was very busy, being crowded with soldiers. Up till then the town had not been shelled and we had great nets thrown across the streets to hide all the troops, lorries, guns, etc. passing through, from the view of the German planes.

I had three real good days rest here with plenty of warm food which gave us fresh strength.

On Monday night, the 15th April, a party of us marched back to our Company, which during our absence had been relieved and gone back to Shrapnel Gully.

Several shells fell among us on the way back and two were killed and several wounded. That night, I was one of a covering party for a fatigue who were digging trenches.

The next afternoon, a German plane flew over (while our planes were away) and discovered where we were camped although we had camouflaged our possies with green bushes, etc. He signalled to his artillery by means of lights and for two hours, we were subjected to a dreadful bombardment, many being killed.

About 8 o'clock he ceased shelling and we emerged from our dugouts to get some tea. As soon as we did, he sent over his last salvo of shells, which were whizz bangs and which, I am sorry to say, killed one of the best pals I ever had (Private Allan Turner of Chinchilla, Queensland.)

He was standing up, about ten yards from me, holding his dixie of stew and just about to enter his dugout when a shell burst near us, a portion of the shell flying up and piercing his steel helmet, going through his head. He was killed instantly. We buried him in the Bonnay Military Cemetery and a cross was erected on his grave.

On Friday, the 19th April, we marched to the front line again and took over a sector near Corbie. The twin towers of the Corbie Church being easily seen from our trenches.

I went out on patrol that night. Next day was quiet and uneventful but at midnight, another chap and myself were detailed to go to the 44th Battalion on our left, report "All Well on the right" where we were and bring back word to our officer whether the 44th was all right or not. I may say that we were not holding a continuous line but, a series of posts from one hundred to two hundred yards apart and we used to keep in touch with each other by patrolling between the posts.

My mate was a Queensland bushman and he said he knew the way and wouldn't get lost, so off we started. After falling into many shellholes and over several dead Australians we reached a machine gunners' post and they gave us the right directions to go. We at last reached the 44th Battalion Post, reported "All Well" found that they were all right and started back to our own post. But a heavy fog was now on us and the moon had gone down. We kept on walking too far in one direction in no-man's-land without finding our trench. The German verey lights seemed to be going up all around us and we were afraid that we would walk into German trenches.

Heard some voices which proved to be a German patrol. We lay down and kept very quiet and the next few minutes seemed an eternity and we were very windy as we thought we would be discovered and taken prisoners.

However, they crept past us (only a few yards away) without seeing us and our luck was in. After waiting for a good while to make sure that they were a good way off, we started on our way again and at last found our trench and our hearts were light once more. Our officer thought we had been taken prisoners because we had been over two hours away, whereas, if we had not got lost, we could have done it in half an hour.

Next day (Sunday) was quiet with the exception of the great airfights that day, in which the great German aviator, Baron Von Richoften was shot down.

One does not know exactly who fired the shot that brought him down - the English, Canadians, New Zealanders and Australians all claiming the credit for it. Some say he was killed from the air and not from a land machine gun.

We often used to see him and his planes come over.

The bottom of Richoften's plane was painted red and we used to call them the red bellied circus.

Early in the morning, Richoften and several of his planes came over and engaged a large number of allied planes. It was a great sight to watch them fighting - chasing each other like a lot of birds in the sky. About midday, after he had disabled and brought down many British planes, Richoften was flying low over our trenches, chasing a plane, if I remember rightly, with all the antiaircraft guns and lewis guns firing at him from the ground. Suddenly his machine burst into flames and crashed to the ground about a third of a mile to the left of us. He was buried in Bertanglee cemetery and the air force made a cross from the propeller of his plane and placed it on his grave.

One does not know exactly who fired the shot that brought him down - the English, Canadians, New Zealanders and Australians all claiming the credit for it. Some say he was killed from the air and not from a land machine gun.

A British plane crashed just in front of our trench that afternoon and as soon as it was dark, we crawled over the trench and got some of the wings as souvenirs which I still have.

Whilst on duty that night I challenged two persons coming down the communication trench who proved to be two Aussies. They were carrying a large wooden cross which they intended erecting, whilst it was dark, over the grave of one of their men who was killed when their Battalion was holding this part of the line and who was buried in no-ma's-land in front of the trench.

These two Aussies (whose Battalion was out in the reserve trenches) risked their lives by coming up to the front line in order to put a cross on a pal's grave, thereby showing the spirit of comradeship that existed between very many of the Australians.

At midnight we were relieved and marched back to the outskirts of Bonnay and dug ourselves in on the side of the hill.

We had a beautiful view from here. The river Amore (a tributary of the Somme) was on one side and the town of Bonnay on the other.

Next five nights were occupied in working parties. I never worked so hard in all my life. Every night as soon as it got dark, we put rifles on one shoulder and pick or shovel on the other and off we marched to dig trenches.

We were each given a certain amount of trench to dig. but very often my mates who had finished theirs first would come and help me finish mine. Often when engaged on these working parties we were shelled and had to take shelter in our hastily dug trenches.

One night, a shell fell among us, wounding the officer in charge and three others. It was quite a common occurrence to hear a bullet hit the shovel as we were digging and we generally cursed our luck when that happened as a bullet wound in the leg was considered a very good "Blighty".

We had a very big chap in our Battalion called McKenzie, "Mac" as we used to call him, who weighed about 17 stone. The stretcher bearers used to say that they hoped he would never get wounded and require a stretcher bearer to carry him out. But strange to say he was wounded in the line one night and the stretcher bearers had to carry him out. His would wasn't serious but he couldn't walk. We believe that the stretcher bearers indulged in plenty of swearing and cursing that night - in a jocular way.

Early in the morning of the 24th April about 4 a.m. when we had just returned from our usual working party up the line, had our drink of tea and were getting into our shelters, a sudden enemy bombardment came down upon us. The Germans were attacking the front line at Villers Bretonneux (held by Australians) and put down a terrific bombardment on the back area where we were and also on the town of Bonnay to try to prevent reinforcements being brought up to the front line.

Shells were falling in and around us for five hours and we were wearing our gas helmets most of the time as much gas was sent over. The soldiers in the village of Bonnay were trapped when he started shelling the village. Hundreds were killed and wounded while they were fleeing from the village. Afterwards it was called "the retreat from Bonnay".

From our position we could see the shells falling on the village which soon became a mass of flames and a heap of ruins.

One shell fell on the Red Cross Hospital in the village (which was a disused school) killing the doctors and everyone in the building.

Some of the shells fell in the river and volumes of water many feet high were thrown up.

Our Battalion suffered heavily. Twenty men were killed and over fifty wounded which was a heavy loss for us.

About midday the shelling ceased and dead and wounded soldiers - also horses and mules - were lying about everywhere.

One shell burst a few feet from our dugout, covering it with dirt but with the exception of a severe shaking, all escaped unhurt.

The next day, a German aeroplane flew over our positions only about a hundred feet above us and rained machine gun bullets down on us - the cook and a few others being only slightly wounded. I was going down to the river at the time for a wash and as I heard bullets whizzing around my head (didn't know that they were coming from a plane at the time) fell flat down.

He came over again in about an hour's time when our anti-aircraft guns got him and he crashed in flames, the airman of course being killed instantly.

On 27th April we went up to the front line again at Sailly-le-Sec where we stayed three days, things being fairly quiet and nothing interesting happening.

On the night of 30th April we were relieved (getting lost coming out - walking about most of the night) and went back to the hill near Bonnay. The next day I was on a salvage party in Bonnay and saw the great damage done there by the bombardment.

That night, we marched to La Hussoye, four miles further back from the line than Bonnay. This town up till then hadn't been shelled, although the inhabitants had evacuated it.

While we were here, the billets I was in were photographed by the official war photographer. He took a photograph of us in our billet - an old barn - while some of were shaving, some "chatting" (removing body lice from one's clothing, etc.) I afterwards saw the photo which was published in a book.

The next five days we were on working parties at Hailly, constructing a huge bomb and shell dugout in an old wall there. One afternoon I had just emerged from the dugout with a bucketful of earth when a shell fell close by - a large piece of the shell flying past my head and knocking a stone out of the wall - another narrow escape.

The weather was now beginning to get nice as spring was coming. I often used to go to the little church at la Hussoys*********** and play the organ. Every time the guns were fired the building would shake. (Our batteries were close by.)

Everything in the church was as the people had left them. The decorations and beautiful vestments were much admired by all the soldiers who visited it.

Every night, the Germans bombed the town, but no damage was done, the bombs falling into open fields.

On the night of the 5th May, jut after midnight, the enemy commenced to shell the town for the first time. All the shells fell into a paddock about a hundred yards from our billets, killing a lot of horses.

Whilst here we had several good concerts which were held in a large aeroplane hangar. On the morning of the 8th May, we marched five kilos further on to the important juncture town of Querrieu (also evacuated) and great activity prevailed here, there being thousands of Americans as well as Australians camped here.

The Americans amused us by their sayings - they used to ask at the canteen for a can - not a "tin" - of cigarettes or a bunch - not a "packet" of cigarettes.

Whilst here we were given hot baths with fresh clothes (free from vermin) which made things more pleasant and comfortable for us.

We were also reviewed one day by Sir Douglas Haig and one day when we were swimming one of the men from the 33rd Battalion was drowned.

The trying times that we had all been through were now telling on us and we were all knocked up and in need of a rest. We had been forty two days in or near the front line continuously.

Many were now ill with trench fever, being evacuated daily and on the morning of the 8th May, I myself was taken to hospital (which was several tents erected in the Convent grounds) suffering with trench fever and a poisoned thumb - the latter being caused by enemy barbed wire.

I remained here three days, being very sick with fever and having no sleep. Every night we were bombed - many bombs falling quite close to us although we had large Red Crosses painted on our tents - but luckily, only horses and mules were killed.

As I got no better, i was taken on the 8th May in a Red Cross Motor Ambulance through the outskirts of Amiens to Allonville Field Hospital. As we passed through Amiens, it was being shelled and shrapnel was bursting over the city.

HOSPITAL - FRANCE

At the Allonville Field Hospital my thumb was lanced and the nail removed. Without an anaesthetic of course because they hadn't any. I fainted.

I lay on a blanket on the ground for two days (all stretcher beds being occupied by serious cases.) My hand was placed in a splint and sling and we left here one afternoon and went by Red Cross train to Rouen where I was admitted to the Red Cross Hospital.

The train was crowded. We were in ordinary box carriages. Eight walking patients were sitting on the seats (four on each side) and two rows of bunks on top of us contained serious cases.

There was a passage right through the side of the train. The nurses were very good and used to come and see us regularly and bring hot soup, cocoa, etc. There was a canary in a cage hanging up in a corridor near our compartment. The nurses had put it there to cheer the men up. They used to come every half hour or so and ask how we were, and it was great to hear an English girl's voice again after several months.

Some of the wounded men in our train had been in or near the front line for twelve months and hadn't seen an Englishwoman for that length of time. I remember one of the sick men saying that he didn't care how many times the nurses cam and asked how we were as he liked to hear the voice of a woman.

In passing may I say that the ambulance that brought me to Allonville Hospital had a brass plate attached inside with the following inscribed on it:

Presented to the British Red Cross Society by the Terania Shire, N.S.W. 1916

It was appropriate that I, a Northern Rivers soldier who enlisted in Lismore, should be carried on an ambulance presented by a Northern Rivers Shire.

Crossing the River Seine at Rouen reminded me very much of the Clarence River. The River Seine is very wide - the rivers we saw when we were away were very small and nothing like the Clarence in width.

This was a huge American Hospital at Rouen. I was the only Australian in the ward, all the others being American. When the Americans called out to the Sisters for candy I got my share of same - also chewing gum - and as I didn't smoke, I enjoyed it. The Americans chew more gum and eat more sweets than we do and the chewing gum and lollies was their regular issue - the same as cigarettes were to us.

Near to our hospital were camped a lot of Indian troops (Ghurkhas) and they were a fine body of men. There was also a big W.A.A.C. (Women's Army Military Corps) camp close to us.

I wasn't well enough to get leave to see the city of Rouen which would have been very interesting.

I was very pleased when one day the doctor said it would be some time before my thumb would be healed enough to allow me back in the trenches and that he thought he would send me across to England till I got better. This was great and welcome news as I had been only four months back in France from my previous leave to England.

HOSPITAL ENGLAND

One night at midnight, we were awakened, given a hot cup of coffee and taken in ambulance cars to the railway station at Rouen and entrained there for Le Havre. travelled all night and arrived there at 8 am.

We were driven to the pier and boarded the hospital ship Albassissi and after nine hours journey, (being escorted by two battleships - there were large red crosses painted on the sides of hospital ships but all the same the Germans used to submarine them) arrived at Southampton at 5 p.m. and was admitted to the British Red Cross hospital there.

After I got better I had a good look over Portsmouth and had the great privilege of seeing the Victory (Nelson's flagship) which is permanently anchored in Portsmouth harbour.

After ten days here we were sent over to the Isle of Wight to a convalescent hospital at Ryde. It was a beautiful trip across of five miles. The hospital was a magnificent building. It was beautifully furnished and we received every care and attention and the food was good.

Midsummer was now approaching and the beauties of the Isle of Wight were wonderful. The green fields were covered with buttercups and daisies and the flowers in bloom were a revelation.

Ryde is a very pretty and up to date town. From our hospital (which is on a hill) we could obtain a great view of the Solient********???Solent??? (the passage which separates the Isle of Wight from the mainland) and could see the battleships and submarines entering Portsmouth Harbour. We had many excursions to the many interesting places in the island and saw Osborne House - where Queen Victoria died - and the famous Cowes where the regattas and Naval Reviews are held.

Also saw Quarr Abbey with its Benedictine monks, attired in their brown costumes and pepper and salt hats. In 1905, the French Government expelled all monks and nuns. The Benedictine monks came across to England and settled in the Isle of Wight and built this huge modern Abbey.

We were then sent back to Portsmouth Hospital for a couple of days and then went by train to Dartford Hospital. This was a huge Australian hospital situated near Dartford, sixteen miles from London. There were hundreds of huts, always full of wounded and sick Aussies.

Matron Bessie Pocock, from Copmanhurst, was in charge of this hospital for two years.

My thumb had now quite healed up and I was feeling ever so much better, so I was granted fourteen days leave before going back to France.

ON LEAVE - ENGLAND

One morning we took train from Dartford and went to London. Stayed at the A.I.F. War Chest Club as usual. Spent three days in London seeing various places.

Then took train to Birmingham, which is the great inland commercial city of England. Saw all the great steel works there and then took train to Manchester where I stayed two days. Then on to Liverpool by train. Liverpool is a huge city. Took the overhead electric train which follows the river Mersey for fourteen miles to its entrance. The whole of this distance is occupied by wharves and piers with large steamers at them and one could go from here to any part of the world.

Then went by train to Carlisle where I was shown through the Castle, Cathedral etc.

From here, I travelled by train to Scotland and arrived at Glasgow which is the second city of the Empire. Saw all the sights including the great ship-building yards. One day we went all over the Scottish Lakes (Loch Lomond, etc.) in a boat. The scenery was grand. Took train back to London. That night, attended the Royal Opera at Covent Garden. (Rigoletto)

The next afternoon a party of us was present at the House of Commons and heard Mr Ramsay MacDonald, Mr Phillip Snowden, Mr McNeill, etc. speak. Lloyd George was present but we didn't hear him speak. It was very interesting indeed.

The next day we went to Buckingham Palace gardens and saw the King decorating V.C. heroes.

I was invited to several private places for teas and evenings.

Took train to Sheerness at the mouth of the Thames where I spent two days with friends. Then back to London and went by train to St Albans and saw the wonderful Abbey there.

My fourteen days leave was then up and I was sent to the Overseas Training Battalion at Longbridge Deverill near Warminster, where I stayed a fortnight. Whilst here I missed a great Honour. Sixty men were required to go to London to form a Guard of Honour for the King when he opened Australia House. All had to be six feet in height so I was eligible. We drew lots to go but I drew a blank. The men who did go had a great time.

I made some English friends at Warminster who were very good to me and with whom I still correspond.

BACK TO FRANCE

We left the Overseas Training Battalion at 6 p.m. on 22nd August 1918, marched to Warminster where we caught train. Travelled all night and arrived at Folkstone at daylight. Then took steamer from Folkstone at 11 a.m., crossed the Channel and arrive at France (Boulogne) at 1.30 p.m.

Marched up to One Blanket Camp. This is so named because it was a very cold bleak camp and only one blanket was issued to each soldier who stayed there, whether it was winter or summer.

In the afternoon we got a pass and went in and saw all over the very interesting city of Boulogne. That night the air raid warning was given but no damage was done by bombs.

We left Boulogne by train at 9 a.m. on 23rd August and arrived at the Base Camp at Le Havre at 11 p.m.

This camp was well known to me now and was like "home" in France. We were equipped and on Sunday, 25th August, marched to Le Havre station, entrained (this time in trucks - "40 hommes, 8 cheveaux") at 8 p.m. and travelled all night towards the line.

Passed through Amiens in daylight and arrived at the ruined town of Corbie on the Somme at 9 a.m.

Camped here in one of the ruined houses. The next three days we were engaged in harvesting the wheat for the French. early every morning we went in motor lorries out to the fields some distance away and worked hard all day, returning to billets at night. By doing this we saved the French a lot of their harvest and there were no civilians available to harvest it.

We had a good look over the ruins of Hamel one day and enjoyed ourselves in the evening at the Y.M.C.A. with music, games, etc. Whilst we were here we were visited by that fine man, Padre Gault, who was well known to thousands of Australian soldiers.

ARMISTICE MINUS 73 DAYS

We left Corbie at 9 a.m. on the morning of the 30th August with full packs and marched 15 miles to Etteheim. Stayed here a day having a swim in the Somme and viewing the ruined villages that a few weeks before were in the possession of the Germans. Needless to say that everything was stolen or smashed to pieces. Several of these small towns were not bombarded much or damaged by shell fire. Even the bells from the churches had been taken down and removed to Germany.

ARMISTICE MINUS 71 DAYS

On Sunday, 1st September, we marched to the reserve line and spent the night there. Coming up, we passed through Bray and had a good look over the town where heavy fighting had occupied a few weeks. The church was used by the Germans as a red Cross Hospital and the large Red Cross painted on its roof was visible many miles away. Coming up we passed a lot of dead and wounded who were being brought down from the lines. That night, we were heavily bombarded in the back areas and our Battalion had a successful "Hop Over".

ARMISTICE MINUS 70 DAYS

The next day our battalion came out of the front line and I rejoined them again after an absence of nearly three months. Needless to say, many old faces were missing through being killed or wounded.

ARMISTICE MINUS 69 DAYS

Next day we moved out of reserve and camped in a gully of the Somme. I went down and had the pleasure of seeing Lieut. Colonel (Dr) McCartney, who was attached to the 10th Field Ambulance close by.

That night we went to a concert given by the Pierrotte Concert Company in an old shed, but in the middle of the performance an air raid took place and, as usual, the show ended and we went back to our dug outs.

ARMISTICE MINUS 67 DAYS

On 5th September we left our dug outs and started marching to the front line as we were to hop over the following morning.

We got into position at midnight and lay out on the grass all night.

The Germans were now retreating, leaving machine gunners in strong positions to harry us and give us trouble as their infantry retired. Also of course, their artillery was giving us a bad time as it retired.

The Germans were now well and truly on the run.

ARMISTICE MINUS 66 DAYS

At daylight we started to advance without any barrage from our artillery and the German machine gunners gave us a hot time but there weren't many troops in front of us to impede our progress.

I never remember hearing so many machine gun bullets whizzing about before. Of course not having any noise from our artillery seemed to magnify the noise from the machine guns.

We had many narrow escapes but only lost a few killed and wounded.

My pal, Bob Ward had his steel helmet knocked off by a machine gun bullet, but escaped injury. (He has his steel hat, with the dent in it plainly showing, hanging up in his home in Brisbane.)

By twelve o'clock we had advanced 2000 yards and then dug in. At 3 o'clock we got the order to advance and we pushed through the village of Tincourt, which was in flames - the Germans having set it on fire before retreating. We established ourselves in temporary trenches in front of the burning village. A few of the enemy who were hidden in dug outs came and surrendered themselves to us.

They were starving and ate ravenously of the food we gave them. Their clothes were in rags and their boots worn out - no soles on them - and they were very dejected and downhearted.

They knew that they were losing the war. What a contrast to our troops. We were well clothed and well fed and full of optimism as to the result of the war.

ARMISTICE MINUS 65 DAYS

The next morning we were relieved and marched back to the reserve line. That night we were heavily shelled with gas shells and had to don our gas masks.

ARMISTICE MINUS 64 DAYS

Next morning we marched back to the line near Tincourt and I had the opportunity of exploring the ruins of the town. We were warned about German treachery when inspecting a village that had been evacuated by the Germans, but not much of Tincourt was left standing, nearly all of it having been burned.

We were not allowed to take water from the wells until the Army Medical Corps had tested it and pronounced it to be fit for drinking (as very often, the Germans poisoned the wells before retreating.)

Once when some of our men were drawing up a bucket of water from a well in a captured village in Suzanne, an explosion occurred but luckily, no one was killed. The Germans had a mine hidden in the well. When opening the doors of houses, very often, explosions occurred as the enemy had contrivances fixed so that the opening of a door or the moving of anything would explode a hidden bomb.

Also near Peronne when some of our men went to bury the dead after the battle of Mont St Quentin (which I was not in) when they were lifting up some of the dead bodies, bombs would explode and many of our men were killed in this way.

He laid these traps for us - placing a bomb under a dead soldier, and when this body was lifted, the catch from the bomb would explode. These were only a few examples of Hun treachery which we saw for ourselves.

My pal picked up a silver crucifix in the ruins of the smouldering church at Tincourt. He afterwards got it mounted on elm by a Frenchman and brought it back to Australia where it hangs in his room. There was a big British sausage balloon here and we gave him a hand filling it with gas and holding it down.

ARMISTICE MINUS 63 DAYS

The next day we marched back to the ruined village of Doingt about 14 kilos behind the front line. Hardly a stone of this once famous and prosperous town was standing. It was a puzzle to find out where the large stone church once stood - all one could see was a heap, of stones.

We were billeted in "Nissen" huts here (so called after the Arctic explorer - the roof was rounded to let the snow fall off) which had been built for us. Our huts adjoined the cemetry.

The Germans had opened most of the vaults and taken the lead and brasswork from the coffins and jewellery and trinkets which had been buried with some of the dead.

It was a gruesome sight to see the vaults open, the coffins smashed and bones, etc. lying about.

We had to walk through the cemetry of a night to get from our huts to the canteen and Y.M.C.A.

The enemy had also constructed a tunnel under the cemetry and mined it, but when the village was captured our engineers found this out and made it harmless.

We stayed here over a fortnight and had rather a happy time. On several occasions we walked into Peronne and had a look over the ruins of this once famous city.

One day, we were reviewed and addressed by the Prime Minister of Australia - the Right Honourable W.M. Hughes just before his return to Australia.

He made a great speech and was well received and cheered by the soldiers.

Working parties here were pretty frequent, also drilling and battle practice. A Casualty Clearing Station was also erected here as this was as near as the Red Cross trains could get to the lines - the railway line having been temporarily repaired this far.

Crowds of German prisoners marched through the village every day so that we knew that our men in the front line were doing good work.

Two Concert Parties - the Cooees and the Kookaburras were giving us concerts alternately in the horse sheds every night. One night I was at a Cooees concert when the usual air raid took place and we had to abandon our concert and go back to our shelters. The horses and mules would be put outside and after the concert would be brought back inside the stables again.

We witnessed several enemy planes and one of our own come down here that night. One night one of our anti aircraft guns scored a hit at a German plane (which was held by our searchlight) which burst into flames and in so doing, caught the coloured lights he carried for signal purposes and it was a beautiful sight to see a mass of various coloured lights rushing from the sky earthwards.

While here we had a sports day between the 41st and the 42nd battalion and had a great time. There were prizes for best dressed man, turnouts and mule races, etc. We had impromptu bookmakers and the boys put their money on the mules for the races. A mule will not or cannot run in a straight line but generally runs sideways and sometimes they used to finish the race from where they started.

The 41st battalion was camped in a wood about a mile from us. While here I received word that my brother Charlie, who was badly gassed at Villers Brettenaux and who had been several months in hospital in England, had returned to Australia.

One beautiful, fine day when we were drilling in a field, a German plane flew over, very high up (just like a speck in the sky). Our anti air craft guns (Archies) were firing and we left off drilling to have a look at the plane. Whilst we were so doing, one of the nose caps from one of the shells fell amongst us - falling on one of our men and killing him instantly.

That night we had terrific thunderstorms - the worst that we had experienced in France.

A good supply of chocolate came to hand here which was rushed by us and the canteen sold out in no time. I was one of the choclate fiends in the Battalion. Once, a pal and I walked 15 kilos (10 miles) away to a neighbouring village where we were told we could buy chocolate. We bought the chocolate all right (quite a quantity of it before tasting it). It was manufactured in Paris and was called "Melba" but we were taken in. It was mostly sawdust and grit with a little sugar and cocoa mixed in it. Sugar was very scarce and very few sweets were obtainable so we used to look forward to receiving parcels from Australia containing lollies and chocolate.

I saw several Grafton boys who were camped near us. One day we marched to Cirquevelles for a bath and saw a very ancient and interesting water wheel working. There were plenty of windmills here and the used to crush the wheat, etc. These windmills were a common and familiar sight in rural France.

Whilst we were camped here the authorities tried to disband the 42nd battalion and distribute us in other battalions but we held a meeting and refused to be disbanded. Each man was very proud of his own battalion's record in the war and this spirit amongst the Australians helped to make the army the great success it was.

We were now practising in earnest for the great battle as the Germans had retreated to their wonderful stronghold - the Hindenburg Line, from which they thought they would never be expelled.

ARMISTICE MINUS 45 DAYS

On 27th September we marched from Boignt at sundown and went 14 kilos to the reserve trenches. During one of our rests for a smoke, a bomb fell from a German plane quite close to us and killed a few mules but no men - only slightly wounding a couple.

the next day we were preparing for the battle and getting everything ready. The Americans were to attack first and take the front German line and we were to advance to relieve them.

That night the German planes came over all night long, dropping bombs and several of the men at the rear of us were killed and wounded by long range shells.

Sometimes one is safer in the front line trench than in the back areas.

BATTLE OF THE HINDENBURG LINE

ARMISTICE MINUS 43 DAYS

At 6 a.m. on Sunday, 29th September, 1918, our barrage opened up and the Americans attacked, followed two hours later by the Australians. It was a wonderful sight to see everything (even the balloons) as day was dawning and our barrage opened, going forward.

Foch was now in supreme command of the Allied Forces and the idea of everything advancing with the infantry was his strategy.

A fog came up and impeded our progress for a short time but didn't last long.

We advanced 2,000 yards through terrific bombardment and shell fire, but the Americans didn't follow out their instructions and mistook signals with the result that they were held up after capturing some of the line and suffered terrible losses.

After we started to advance, a bullet struck my officer (who was a few yards ahead of me) in the stomach and he fell down. I immediately went to him and took off his equipment and called a stretcher bearer to come to him. He was a fine man (Lieutenant Browne of Toowoomba) loved and respected by all and was one of the last officers killed in our Battalion.

The Americans captured the main Hindenburg Line all right, but didn't stop to "mop up" (that is look down and explore all the captured dug outs and either take any men in them as prisoners, or kill them) properly.

Consequently when the Americans advanced in front of the Hindenburg Line Trench, the Germans came out of their dug outs in hundreds and mowed down the Americans in front of them.

This caused great confusion, as the enemy was now entrenched between us and the Americans and the line had to be attacked and retaken again.

So it was decided that they 44th Battalion should attack and capture the line next morning - it was afterwards changed to that night - which they did with success but great loss.

That night, we advanced in the pitch darkness to near the front line and lay down in shell holes in the company of hundreds of dead soldiers. The dead Americans were piled feet deep here. It was now raining heavily and we experienced a terrible night and I thought we would never see the morning. Shells were falling thick among us and we were covered with dirt from the shells as they exploded in the mud.

We lost a great number of killed and wounded that night.

Towards morning we advanced through the outer Hindenburg Line up to near the front line. This trench was the biggest I had seen till then. It was fully twelve feet wide and twelve feet deep, but nothing to what the main Hindenburg Line proved to be.

ARMISTICE MINUS 42 DAYS

At daylight we crept up and occupied the Main Hindenburg Line. Just before we occupied it the Germans had evacuated it and retreated and some of their wounded were still in the trench - they hadn't time to take them away with them as they hurriedly retreated. These wounded Germans were looked after by us.

Our artillery was now making it too hot for the Germans and the French had already captured the Western End of the Hindenburg Line in this sector, so the Germans had to retreat or else they would have been in a big salient here.

The Hindenburg Line was indeed a revelation to us. It was a great feat for the Americans and the Australians to capture the sector we were on. The Line here was on top of the old St Quentin Canal. The machine gun emplacements on top of the trenches were fixed onto solid concrete foundations and proof to withstand any bombs or shells.

We were tired and knocked up and all lay down in our safe shelter and were soon fast asleep. At dark the sergeant came and woke us up and asked for twelve volunteers for patrol duty. As none of us volunteered, we drew Lots and I was very lucky and drew a blank, which allowed me to remain in the dugout and sleep.

The patrol was out for several hours and had excitement. Ran into a patrol and one of our men was grabbed and taken prisoner. The rest of the men returned safely.

The next day we explored the Canal. It was a wonderful sight. Picture to yourself a large underground river with tow paths on both sides. It was pitch dark of course, but the Germans had it electrically lit - they destroyed the plant before retreating. We used candles. The Germans still occupied part of this tunnel about three miles away, so we had our machine gunners on sentry at the end we occupied. Large barges were on the Canals and on them, the Germans could billet hundreds of their men in perfect safety.

We also saw the large vats where the Germans were supposed to have burned down their dead to obtain fat of which they were very short. But this was not correct. The large vats were used by the Germans to cook food for their troops. During the battle, many of them were killed as they were coming out of the tunnel and some of their legs, arms, bodies, etc. were blown into these vats amongst the food - hence the false stories that got around.

There were hundreds of dead Americans and Australians lying about and the grave parties were very busy burying them. The dead were buried with their uniforms on (it was disrespectful to take the uniforms off) the only things taken from the dead were identification disc, pay book and any private papers, to be forwarded to their relatives.

Most of our men souvenired the Americans before they were buried and got great hauls of money (in French notes of course) as many of the Americans were wealthy and had plenty of money on them. This was all right as we may as well have had it and made use of it (which we did) instead of burying it with them.

I found a very good silver German revolver in a dug out, which I exchanged for an American watch, as I had lost my wristlet watch when on patrol one night, and I felt lost without the time on me. (My memories of Verdi always feature this watch, slim - when watches were traditionally thick, square when traditionally round, gold when I had never seen anyone else with a gold watch. A standard black strap. Why I should remember it is one of those quirks of memory, but it was part of his visiting ritual. He would always look at it on arrival and say "I didn't realise it was so close to tea time" and then after the statutory hour or so, he would look at it again and say "Look at the time, I must get going". the watch always hung loosely one his thin, almost emaciated wrist.)

ARMISTICE MINUS 41 DAYS

OUT OF THE LINE

That night we were relieved and left the Hindenburg Line (the last time we were to be in the trenches but we didn't know it then.)

Marched back to the outskirts of the village of Bellingegliss, being heavily shelled, of course, coming out.

ARMISTICE MINUS 40 - 39 DAYS

Next day, we marched to the ruins of Tincourt and rested here two days. Then, with packs up we marched through the ruins of Peronne to a railway point and entrained.

On our way down, we passed thousands of American soldiers marching in on their way to the line. America, by this time, had over 1,000,000 troops in France, and more were arriving daily.

In passing, I may say, Americans were not popular with us. They 'bragged" too much and were "know alls", although, as regards fighting, they knew very little, having no experience. But of course, their bravery was not to be questioned. Individually, they were all right. We struck some fine Americans and made many friendships.

After a five hours journey in the train, passing through the country that we were fighting over - Villers Brettenaux, Amiens, Corbie, etc. - we arrived at the fair sized town of Airaines at sundown where we disentrained and after a short rest and some tea, marched till midnight to our billets, which were in the pretty little village of Vergies.

We stayed here a fortnight, during ten days of which time, I was in the Red Cross hospital (an old French Chateau) at Warlus, with an attack of influenza. On my return to Vergies from hospital, my pal and I explored the villages of Alleray, Oisemont, etc.

Here, another attempt was made to break up the Battalion.

ARMISTICE MINUS 23 DAYS

Thereupon, the "big guns" (Gen. Gellibrand, etc.) came and lectured us on the parade ground one day. they told us that due to lack of reinforcements from Australia, it was imperative that we be broken up as we could not keep up the strength of our Battalion, so we gave in, and on the 19th October 1918, the 42nd Battalion AIF ceased to exist as a separate unit and what was left of us (half the original Battalion and reinforcements having been killed or wounded) was incorporated in the sister 41st Battalion of which we became its "A Company".

As we were known as the "Australian Black Watch" we were allowed to retain our pipe band, so still had the old pipes to march to occasionally.

ARMISTICE MINUS 22 TO AFTER THE ARMISTICE

On 21st October we left Vergies and marched to the little village of Aeleages, where we were billeted. We enjoyed the fine apples from the orchard here. For half a franc (five pesos) we could get a large bag full. On the 21st we were inspected by the Colonel of the 41st battalion and on the 27th October we marched to and billeted at, Warlus.

had a few happy weeks here till the armistice was signed.

This place will be remembered by the "Mad Mile". Every morning, we had to march, with full packs and in battle order, at quick pace through the streets of the village to the strains of "Blaze Away March" played on the Battalion Brass Band - so it was nicknamed the "Mad Mile".

While here, my pal and i had several days off duty and visited and inspected the ancient and interesting cities of Amiens and Abbeville.

Amiens was a fine city and in peace time, had 150,000 inhabitants. Its wonderful Cathedral was regarded as the finest specimen of Gothic architecture in the world. From our trench, when in the line, we would see the great Cathedral standing up against the skyline, above everything else.

Thousands of sandbags protected its beautiful carved doors, statues, etc. and everything movable (including the great organ) was taken down and stored in the crypt.

The French had important German hostages (prisoners) continually in the Cathedral, and let the Germans know of this, so if they shelled the Cathedral they would kill their own men. Only a couple of stray shells fell on the Cathedral during the war, so very little damage was done to it. A fine memorial, erected by the citizens of Amiens, now stands in the cathedral, in memory of the Australians who gave their lives to defend the city.

At Amiens, we also saw the tomb of Jules Verne. This consisted of two marble statues of a boy and a girl sitting down, reading a book and underneath are written the titles of some of his books "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea" ,"From The Earth To The Moon", etc.

The Germans had occupied Amiens for a few weeks at the beginning of the war, but, after the battle of Marne they retreated from it. and we saw several notices affixed to the Town Hall by them giving orders to the French civilians what to do, etc.

Abbeville (from which city, William The Conqueror sailed in 1066 to conquer England) is also very interesting. This part of France belonged to England till we lost it in Queen Mary's reign and the hatred of the French to the English in this part of France had been most marked till the present war. In the Cathedral of Abbeville there is a stuffed alligator hanging on one of the pillars in the nave. This was brought back from Australia by Admiral de Coubert in 1820, and represents the dragon that a legend says was killed by Wulfrum - the man who founded Abbeville. He was afterwards made a Saint and the Cathedral of Abbeville was built and called St Wulfrum.

The museum at Abbeville contains a relic which was of interest to us Australians. It contains the ship's bell from the ship Hebe which accompanied Admiral La Perouse when he sailed into Botany bay to annex Australia for France just six weeks after Captain Cook had taken possession of Australia in the name of England.

Winter was now on us and the nights were spent in an old building which was converted into a Y.M.C.A. The Paris edition of the London "Daily Mail" (half of which was printed in English and half in French) was tacked up on the wall every night so that all could read it. One of the men had to go to Abbeville on his bicycle - 14 kilos away - every afternoon when the train arrived from Paris, to get the paper. We managed to get a picture plant and for several nights had movies - for which I played on an old piano.

We also had the snake expert "Rocky Vane" (from Mullumbimby) in our Battalion, and one night he gave us a lecture on Australian snakes, which was very interesting.

Another night, Monsieur Le Sage (A Professor from Paris University) - who spoke English perfectly - gave us a lecture on "France and the French People" which was very interesting indeed and in which we learned a lot about the country and the people we had been living amongst for several years and he exploded many wrong opinions we had of the French people and their customs, etc.

ARMISTICE SIGNED

We could tell by the news in the papers that the war was practically over although we, the Third Division, were told to hold ourselves in readiness to proceed to the line again - the 1st, 4th and 5th Divisions already being on their way to the line.

On Monday, 11th November, 1918, the day the Armistice was signed, we marched to Alleray for a hot steam bath and on passing through Airanes found all the houses decorated with tricolours and the church bells pealing and the Frenchies running about like madmen. We wondered what was wrong and halted in the main street for a rest. The Captain then told us that he had interviewed the Mayor who had received a telegram saying that the armistice was to be signed at 11 a.m. that morning - it was then 10 a.m. We gave three cheers and could scarcely realise that the war was over.

When we returned to Warlus, the news that the war was over had reached there and the town was decorated, etc. Next day we had a holiday from drills to celebrate peace. The bells of the old French church chimed night and day for several days. Most of us attended the Victory Thanksgiving Mass at the Roman Catholic Church.

Some of the men broke camp and went to the neighbouring cities - some got as far as Paris. Many were pinched and put in the clink (gaol) as they had no leave passes - others were caught and sent back to the Battalion.

On 25th November we had a parade and a lecture from the Colonel - it was the second anniversary of the Battalion's landing in France.

A few of the French who had been prisoners of war in Germany - some of them from the beginning of the war - had now returned to their village and it was touching and pathetic to see the reunion with their loved ones and made us homesick and wish we were back in Australia.

The French children had written all over the walls of the village houses with chalk - "La Guerre Mapoo" or "La Guerre Fini" which means "the war is over" or "the war is finished".

On 10th December we marched with full packs up, through the snow, 24 kilos to the village of Maxtent, where we billeted. Our platoon made ourselves comfortable in an old barn and "pinched" some of the Frenchies straw for beds and they made a great fuss and put in claims to the military.

Winter was now upon us and it was piercing cold. St Maxent was nicknamed the "Venice of the Somme" because of the muddy and wet streets. These were almost impassable and every morning a fatigue had to clear the roads of the mud before we could march over them.

Our billets were overrun with rats. I remember one night when we were all asleep the rats were scampering along the rafters and one overbalanced and fell down on my face. It almost stunned me - stunned the rat also - we killed it and I thought the war was on again and that a bomb had struck me.

We now refused to drill as the war was over, so every morning we had to do a route march through the snow for exercise and in the afternoon play soccer in the snow. We also used to make great snow men and pelt each other with snow balls.

While here I received twelve parcels from Australia in one mail (received some of my brother's parcels as he had returned to Australia and of course, shared them with some of the unlucky ones who seldom or never received parcels.

The influenza epidemic now broke out amongst us and it was sad to see so many of our men dying with the 'flu - ones who had gone through the war without a scratch. Strict precautions were taken. Our clothes were put through fumigators, etc. For a few weeks it was very severe and many of the were sent to hospital - several of them dying. The man next to me in my billet (Charlie Godden) a fine, big, strapping chap, died from it. After four weeks the severity of it seemed to have spent itself and we soon forgot about it.

VISIT TO BATTLEFIELDS

I had three days leave granted to me to go to the battlefields to try to find the grave of my cousin, Private B.G. Johnson, 25th battalion, A.I.F. who was killed in a raid at Morlancourt on 1oth June, 1918.

My Aunt in Australia had written to me and asked me to try to do this for her.

On Monday, 23rd December, I left St Maent and walked through pouring rain and sleet to Abbeville. At Amiens, I got a lift in a British Motor Lorry and went to Corbie where I stayed the night, camping under the lorry with the Tommies. It was piercing cold and we lit a fire to keep us warm. A lot of soldiers were billeted in Corbie (none of the civilians had returned as yet) and we walked up to the square that night and the famous Grenadier Guards Band (whose unit was billeted there) played some fine music, which is still in my memory.

Next morning, (Christmas Eve) I was up at daybreak and armed with a book of directions, a pass to visit the battlefields and some food (food was unobtainable in the devastated areas) I walked along the Canal past "Circular Quay" (which name was painted on the landing steps - some Aussies had been billeted there) through Vaux-sur-Somme and down to Sailly-le-Sec or what was left of this large town.

It was quite different to the day we had entered it first (nine months previously) to stop the German advance. Now, it was a heap of ruins. As I walked through it to our old trenches it brought back many memories to me.

Thousands of German prisoners were at work here, clearing the battlefields of debris and filling in trenches.

I walked for four hours, looking at every cross I came to and, at last, came across a large wooden cross on the top of a ridge. It had a map of Australia worked - in tin - on it on which was written the names of fourteen Aussies who were all buried in the one grave. My cousin's name was among them.

I buried on the grave, a little bunch of pressed flowers that his mother had posted over to me and got a little tobacco tin of earth from the grave which I posted back to my Aunt in Australia.

There was a big dump of eighteen pounder shells close by and I picked up two of them, strapping them across my shoulder, walked back to Corbie, where I was lucky to catch a train back to Amiens, arriving there at 8 p.m. on Christmas Eve.

I kept the shell cases on me and when I took sick leave and was sent to hospital, one of my pals packed them up and posted them back to my mother in Australia and she received them safely. I afterwards got one of them made into a font ewer which I placed in the South Grafton Church of England to her memory. The other, I had made into a coffee pot which I still have.

A few civilians had returned to Amiens, but the huge city was practically deserted and in pitch darkness. I slept the night in the Military barracks (a large Convent) opposite the station. An English soldier and myself walked about the darkened city and at last found a small Y.M.C.A. where we got some coffee and biscuits.

We then returned to the Barracks where we lay down in our clothes with overcoat on, we had neither blankets nor fire in our room, did not sleep much that night.

Next morning, Christmas Day, 1918 - the second Christmas Day that I had spent in France - I went to Holy Communion in the little English Chapel attached to the Y.M.C.A.

At 11 a.m. we went to High Mass in Amiens Cathedral.

It was crowded with soldiers of all nations - English, French, Australians, Canadians, New Zealanders, Americans, etc. - and a few civilians.

The interior was still sandbagged up, the organ dismantled and a temporary alter had been erected near the west door - over which, occupying places of honour, being the Union Jack and Australian flags.

The music was supplied by a fine orchestra and the sermon that morning was preached by the Bishop of Amiens (who subsequently wrote that fine letter to the world, thanking the Australians for saving Amiens and his cathedral) but as he spoke very rapidly, which is the custom among the French, we understood very little of what he was saying.

At 1.30 p.m. I caught a train and arrived at Abbeville at 3.30 p.m.. I went and had a rest at the Church of England hut there, where one of the ladies gave me a cup of coffee and some cake (my Christmas Dinner) and I afterwards walked back to St Maxtent arriving just in time for tea.

I was very tired after my journey but I felt pleased that I was fortunate enough to find my cousin's grave.

LAST FEW MONTHS IN FRANCE

On Boxing Days we went to the "Cooees" concert.

One of my favourite walks from here was to Abbeville. We generally walked in, but very often got a lift back in one of the lorries.

Whilst we were here I I inspected very many of the ancient churches in these parts. The Church of St. Riqieur was famous on account of containing relics of the great King and Emperor, Charlemagne.

During most of the time I was in the Battalion in France, we had two Padres attached to us. Padre Wood (Catholic) and Mills (Methodist).

Padre Wood was very popular and loved by all. He is an old man now (1935) and in charge of Hopetoun Parish in Victoria and I keep in touch with him. He used to come to our billets and call out; "Any rough carpenters or ration carriers here?" (meaning RC's.)

Much to our regret, Padre Wood left us and was replaced by Padre Jones who was also a fine fellow. He gave me a pair of Rosary Beads which had been blessed by the Bishop of Amiens. Padre Mills was also very popular and was awarded the Military Cross.

While here, we inspected the beet sugar factory and the glass factory at St. Martinsville which were both very interesting. Saw the making "Roger et Gaillett" and other perfume bottles. We used to take the rising suns off our uniforms and the girls would pour melted glass on them making glass rising suns, etc. which were very good souvenirs.

We also went to Oisemont several times. Near here was the house in which the Black Prince of England slept the night before the Battle of Crecy. We visited the house and saw the room he slept in. Our parade ground here was on a very part of the battlefield of Crecy. In 1875 the French gave the British permission to erect a statue on the battlefield in memory of the British Soldiers who were killed in the battle of Crecy, but this was destroyed by the French in 1896 during the Fashoda trouble when feeling ran high between England and France and these two nations nearly went to war.

I now got transferred to Rambures (12 kilos away) and was attached to Brigade Headquarters as a clerk, but didn't like being there and after four weeks went back and rejoined the Battalion at St Maxent.

Rambures is noted for its fine 13th Century Chateau which, when it was erected, was impregnable, being surrounded by a moat and drawbridge.

When we were billeted there, the occupants were Royalists of whom there are very few in France now. I had a great place to billet at here. the old French Lady wouldn't let me sleep in the barn but made me sleep in her house and I appreciated it as the weather was very cold.

She even used to give me a hot brick to take to bed of a night and warm water in the morning to shave and wash, which was indeed a luxury.

Her son had been a prisoner of war for three years (his wife lived with her) and they were expecting him home any day. Many were the happy evenings we spent here around the old French stove - Madame, her husband, daughter-in-law, a couple of officers and a few of us men - talking about Australia, etc.

We asked them why they had never visited England (they had only been once to Paris even though it was only 150 miles away) and they said they couldn't think of making such a long sea voyage across to England - twenty miles across the Channel!

The old Lady said that she remembered the Franco - Prussian war of 1870. She was then a girl of 15 and remembered the Germans occupying her village and after the war she remembered her late father taking the gold Napoleons to the Bank Of France after the harvest every season, to help pay the indemnity which Germany then imposed on France.

They would listen, with their mouths open in amazement to us talking about Australia. We couldn't speak much French or they, much English, but we generally managed to understand one another.

After my return to Australia, every Christmas, until the old lady's death, I always sent her a Christmas cake. I used to get the cake soldered up in a tin to make it airtight.

PARIS LEAVE

I now applied for leave to visit Paris and Brussels - which was granted to me.

On March 1st, 1919 I received my pass and went over to St. Maxent and stayed the night with my Battalion. My pals lent me some of their clothes such as a new tunic, hat, breeches, puttees, etc. as mine were old and worn out.

I had 25 paid to me out of my credit in pay book. That afternoon, walked into Abbeville where I had a hot bath at the Municipal Baths and feeling fresh and happy, caught the midnight train to Paris. My pass did not date until the next day, but the M.P. s (Military Police) let several of us onto the station to get away by the midnight train instead of having to wait till the next morning's train.

The Military Police had a very bad name but this instance shows they weren't all as bad as they were painted.

Travelled all night and arrived at the great railway station of Paris - the Gare du Nord - at 8 a.m. We were met by an Aussie Leave Sergeant and taken in a motor lorry to the British Headquarters in Paris. We were given a lecture on how to conduct ourselves in Paris and told of many doubtful places not to visit.

We then went to the Hotel Moderne and booked up. This was a huge hotel run by the English Ladies in Paris for the British troops. There were 500 beds in large dormitories. The prices were reasonable, four francs (3/4d) a night for a bed and we could also get a very good meal for three francs (2/6d)

Food in the city was expensive and a decent meal in a good restaurant would cost up to eight francs (6/8d). All the time I was in Paris, I never touched meat. I was told that the Parisians all ate horse flesh and as I had a horror of eating same, abstained from meat all the time i was there. We saw the Parisians eating stewed frogs' legs. Only the high class Parisians eat frogs the feet only - the bodies are not eaten. A certain kind of brown frog is bred for this purpose. The ordinary Frenchman would no more eat a dish of frogs' legs than an ordinary Englishman.

Sightseeing parties, in charge of the various English ladies, would leave the hotel every morning, afternoon and night.

Paris is a wonderful city of 5,000,000 people. It is not as large as London, but more beautiful, being built for show and spectacular purposes.

The city proper was remodelled and rebuilt by the last of the Emperors - Napoleon III. The streets (they are called "Boulevards") are fine. They are very wide, with trees on either side and in the centre, plots with gardens, flowers, statues and water fountains. The "Boulevard des Italiens" is one of the finest streets in the world - three miles long.

The buildings are marvellous. The city is full of small parks and large squares. The "Place de la Concorde" is half a mile square, in the centre of the city, with trees, fountains and statues in it.

The shops were a revelation. We saw the famous stores of Au Printemps, Worths, Paquins and Madame Louise's milliner's shop. The Paris women are the most beautifully dressed women in the world.

There are no trams in the city proper (the same as in London) only buses. The tubes and Metropolitan Underground are the same as London.

The first afternoon we had a look over the city on various buses. That night we went to the National Opera House and witnessed a performance of the Grand Opera "Othello". This is the most famous opera house in the world. It occupies a whole square and the magnificence of it is marvellous. It is situated in the centre of the city and all the streets radiate from it (Place de l'Opera). The exterior is grand. Great statues of musicians adorn every vantage point. The wonderful marble staircase inside is world famous and we walk up it to our seats. The magnificent chandelier is also famous.

Next day, a party of twenty, in the charge of an English lady, went by train to Fontainbleu - 40 kilos from Paris. Saw all through the great castle there. The great courtyard in front of the building is known as the Coeur des Adieux, being the spot where Napoleon bade farewell to his generals before his abdication to Elba in 1814.

One ascends the famous horseshoe staircase and passes through rooms with magnificent ceilings, frescoes and furniture where our guide points out the table on which Napoleon signed his abdication. We see his throne room and the magnificent bed chamber of Marie Antoinette and the room set apart for Pope Pius VII who was kept prisoner here for eighteen months because he refused to sanction the divorce of Napoleon and Josephine. Also, a lock of Napoleon's hair and many other things of historical and artistic interest.

We returned to Paris and on the following morning (Sunday) a party went to the British Embassy church and were seated in the front seat where the Prince of Wales had sat the previous Sunday., when he had attended church here. It was quite nice to hear a proper church service in English again and the sermon was preached by Bishop Gwynne of Khartoum.

In the afternoon, went to the Pantheon where saw many ancient and interesting things and then went on to the Hotel des Invalides to see Napoleon's tomb. After passing through many ante-chambers one ascends a broad flight of steps and is soon in a circular chapel. The remains of the great Napoleon are in a red marble tomb - the gift of the Emperor Nicholas of Russia - said to be carved out of the largest single block of marble in the world - which reposes on the centre of a sunken crypt, surrounded by twelve massive pillars, representing his chief victories. Only by paying a silent act of homage can one view the tomb for in looking over the marble balustrade it is necessary to bow the head.

The tomb of Napoleon II is nearby and an empty niche is also there. This was ready to receive the body of Napoleon III but after his abdication and flight to England in 1870, he lived there till he died in 1891 and is buried, together with the Empress Eugenie (who died in 1921) at Farnborough Roman Catholic Church (and which I have seen.) The French people will not allow his body or that of his wife to be transferred to the Invalides to the empty tombs that were prepared for them.

The remainder of the building is principally a museum. We saw the coffin (that Napoleon's body was removed in from St Helena to Paris 19 years after his death) also his will which was in a glass case - an extract being "je desire que mes cendres reposent sur les bords de la Seine au mileu de ce peuple francais que ' aitant aime" Also, his general's hat and soldier's clothes.

Then, we visited the Cyclorama and saw the famous war painting. It was painted on 4000 square feet of canvas and occupied the whole wall around the circular buildings, depicting the whole of the battlefields of the Allied armies.

In the evening, went to a concert which are held on Sundays the same as on weeknights.

Next morning we took train to Versailles. One enters the Palace grounds by the spacious Court Royale, lined with its majestic looking heroic equestrian statues, fountains, etc. The furnishings and paintings of the exterior one could not adequately describe. We visited the Galerie des Glaces (Room of Mirrors) and this was of special interest for here, Wilhelm I was proclaimed German Emperor in 1870 and in it, the Treaty of Peace between the Allies and Germany was signed on 28th June 1919.

We saw all the interesting things connected with King Louis and Marie Antoinette.

The Palace is indeed a marvel, with its hundreds of magnificently furnished and decorated rooms and the wonderful terraced grounds with artificial lakes, statues and fountains.

That night a party of us, accompanied by a guide, saw "Paris by Night".

The next day, with some American soldiers, we went and saw the great Cathedral of Notre Dame, which is an island in the River Seine - several beautiful bridges spanning the island to the mainland. It is a wonderful building and being a Saint's Day, High Mass was being sung and we saw the unusual but touching sight of the soldiers in the chancel presenting arms to the Host after the consecration.

After leaving Notre Dame we went through the city passing the famous Rat Mort (Dead Rat) Cafe, then (saw) the great cemetry famous for the illustrious men whose remains are there and also for the rich monuments and statuary it contains.

The various mill wheels here do not let us forget that we are in Montmartre, and we pass the Moulin de la Gallette - a picturesque old place dating from the 12th Century.

We then ascended steep stone steps and emerged from a clump of mean looking houses and suddenly 9there) rises in front of us the might church that we have trudged to see; Sacre Coeur. It is built of grey stone and white marble and is of Byzantine architecture, being surmounted by a huge white dome. We go inside and drink in the beauty of its lofty marble arches and pillars. This church was built after the Franco-Prussian war as a thanksgiving offering in memory of the French soldiers who fell in that war.

We next visited the Church of St. Danys (the Westminster Abbey of Paris) where all the French Kings and Queens were crowned and buried.

The next building we visited was the great Quai d' Orsai (where the Peace Conference was sitting) and we saw the Australian Prime Minister ( Mr. W. M. Hughes - the second time that I had seen him in France - President Wilson - Clemenceau, etc. drive away in their cars for the lunch adjournment.

That night we went to the famous Folies Bergeres - which is looked on as rather risque but no one is considered to have "done" Paris without visiting this theatre.

The next morning went and saw the Madeline Church. This was originally built for napoleon as a Temple Of Reason but after his downfall, it was converted into a Roman Catholic Church.

Then went and saw the Church of the Holy Name. This was the church that a huge shell (fired by the Germans thirty miles from Paris) fell on, on Good Friday, 1918, killing many people who were worshipping there.

The next place we saw was the famous prison of the Bastille, the storming of which is considered to have been the beginning of the French Revolution.

The next morning was occupied in visiting the great wheel of Paris and having a ride on same. This was a huge affair built for the Paris Exhibition of 1887. Each compartment held about twenty people. The Great Wheel used to revolve slowly (forty minutes for a complete circuit) and when one was right on top, a wonderful panoramic view of Paris could be obtained.

Had afternoon tea with some English people whose address had been given to me. The gave me a Bible, printed in French and illustrated, as a souvenir of my visit to them. That night we went to see another concert.

Our next visit was to the Eiffel Tower. This wonderful tower is immense. The base covers two and a half acres and its height is 975 feet. Planes have flown through the spans and on the first of the three stories is a restaurant and theatres etc. We couldn't go up the tower as it was closed, being the headquarters of the French wireless stations during the war.

Continuing along the boulevarde we approach the great restaurant of the Trocadero which is guarded by great animal statues. The Salles des Fetes will hold 5,000 people.

We then go to the Avenue des Champs Elysees. The Avenue, beginning at the Arc de Triomphe is one and a half miles in length and was begun by Napoleon in 1806 as a memorial of triumphs. The Arc de Triomphe is the largest triumphal arch in the world and is adorned with wonderful sculpture.

the body of the Unknown Warrior now rests in a chamber above and the Flame of Remembrance continually burns over the tomb. In graceful compliment to the British armies, the chains across the gateways were removed for the first time since 1870 when in 1918, King George V visited Paris.

We then entered a beautiful tree lined street which was named by the French; Rue Edouard VII (after King Edward VII) whom they adored, and saw the beautiful equestrian statue of the king, erected by the French Nation in memory of Edward VII.

The next day we visited the Louvre with its wonderful collections of art treasures - paintings, sculpting, etc. The guide informed us that the eleven collections of art treasures in the Louvre form one of the most magnificent and most complete displays in the world. These works of art were "conveyed" (not "stolen") from different countries by Napoleon during his many campaigns and never restored to their original owners.

Having been introduced to Miss Lily Butler - that fine English lady who kept the "Corner of Blighty" in the Place de la Vendome, she undertook to take a party of us to Malmaison next day.

This beautiful place was Josephine's (Napoleon's first wife whom he divorced) favourite palace and we saw all the historic and interesting things connected with this unhappy woman. We saw the carriage she drove through the streets of Paris to the divorce in, and Napoleon's love letters to her after he divorced her. Even though he divorced her, he loved her to the end.

In the afternoon went and saw Miss Ettit Rout, that New Zealand lady who did so much for the Anzacs in Paris. She had a room in a hotel opposite the Gare du Nord and always had an Australian flag flying from it, and if any of our men were in trouble or difficulties and went to Miss Rout, she would do what she could for us. She afterwards married Sergeant Hornibrook and is the author of many books written since the war - on sex and other matters.

The last night in Paris, we visited the famous Bohemian quarter.

So finished my leave in Paris.

BRUSSELS LEAVE

I had now seen practically everything of interest in Paris so we left Paris in the Continental Express (which had just resumed running after five years) at 11 p.m. one night. We were a happy party in our carriage - two Aussies, two Canadian nurses and a Frenchman and his wife and two children who were returning to what was left of their home in a ruined village in the devastated areas.

We travelled without a stop all night and early next morning entered the battlefields.

Thousands of German prisoners were engaged in repairing the railway line and we crawled along. On either side of the railway line being the trenches and ruined villages. Passed through the famous lace city of Valenciennes, which was now in ruins. The Frenchman, his wife and children now left us so we had more room. Crossed the Belgium frontier and came to Mons. The train stayed here three quarters of an hour and we had a good look at this fine city which became famous on account of the retreat from Mons at the commencement of the war.

The city was not damaged as no fighting took place within miles of it.

We continued our journey over the flat country of Belgium and arrived at Brussels at 2 p.m.

Stayed at the Y.M.C.A.

Brussels is a beautiful city - a "Miniature Paris". It is of course, smaller than Paris - has 2,000,000 - but rivals the French capital for beauty and life.

The Germans had occupied Brussels for four years and the civilian people told us some interesting stories of the German occupation. the city was not damaged as the Belgian Army merely retreated from Brussels in 1914 and the Germans occupied it without any fighting.

The people of Brussels were the real, genuine Belgian people - not like the mongrel Belgians we encountered near the line - and could not do enough for the Allied soldiers whom they called the "Deliverers".

We travelled free on the trams and were admitted to the theatres etc. at half price. The people were always inviting us into their homes and even though they were short of food, they gladly shared what they had with their soldier guests. The people knew what it was to want during the German occupation as they had very little food and many people died of starvation.

I bought two pieces of music at a little shop in Brussels. The lady told me that she had the music hidden in a large case underneath the floor of one of her rooms during the time of the German occupation so that they wouldn't take it.

One incident I remember well that they told me. When the Kaiser was to pass through Brussels on his way to the front, an order was issued to the inhabitants that they must remain indoors. If they were found in the streets during the prohibited hours they were shot dead.

I had a good look over the city seeing the Cathedral, Hotel de Ville (Town Hall), and the Palais de Justice, which is built of white marble and considered one of the finest buildings in the world.

On two nights, went to the beautiful Opera House (l'Opera de la Monnaie) which is smaller but nearly as beautiful as that of Paris. Saw the operas of "Aida" and "Thais". This is the Opera House where Madam Melba first sang in Opera, having created the role of Gilda in "Rigoletto" in 1888, so it was of interest to us Australians. A brass plate on the wall of the Foyer of the Opera records this event.

The next day we went by tram out to Waterloo, fifteen miles from Brussels, where we spent a whole day seeing all over the historic battlefield. It was indeed a privilege to have done this, The guide took us to the top of the famous lion monument from which a great view of the battlefield can be obtained. It is almost a mile square, and he explained the whole battlefield, also the battle of Waterloo to us, pointing out the various positions that were occupied by the English, French and Germans.

I had now seen where Napoleon was exiled, (St Helena), his tomb (in Paris) and where he was defeated in battle (Waterloo).

The next day we saw the King's Palace - which was German Military Headquarters during the war and the spot where Edith Cavil was shot.

To give one an idea of how expensive things were here, I remember paying a franc (10pence) for two oranges.

I would have liked to have gone on to Antwerp but my leave was up and I was also getting short of money so one morning we left Brussels by train and arrived at Paris late that night.

Spent another day and night in Paris and next morning at 9 a.m. left the Gare du Nord by train and arrived at Amiens late that afternoon. Caught a train from Amiens and arrived at Abbeville after a two hours journey and walked from there to St. Maxtent.

Stayed the night with my Battalion, telling the boys of the great time I had - very few had the luck to go to either Paris or Brussels.

Next morning, walked over to Headquarters at Rambures and took up billets again with Madame after my very enjoyable holiday. Came back with just enough money to send a cable home to my parents telling them that I was well and had been on leave to Paris and Brussels.

LAST WEEKS IN FRANCE

I now got transferred back to the Battalion at St. Maxtent. Here we erected a large marquee, which was floored, and here we used to hold our famous dances. It was continually snowing so going out of doors was almost impossible and the officers devised this way of keeping the men occupied and out of mischief. Every afternoon from two till six and every evening, Sundays included, from seven till midnight, dancing was indulged in. It was all "buck sets" with the exception of a few of the French girls occasionally. The Officers also took part in these dances and we had some very happy times indeed.

On several occasions, an English lady came up from Abbeville and taught the men new dances - "Maxina", etc. Once we had a big dance for the W.A.A.C.S. from Abbeville, who came in motor lorries in charge of their Lady Officers. One night we also entertained the French girls from Doudainville to a dance. The French girls were very good, and light, dancers.

I was pianist for all these dances and one night I took sick while playing and had to return to my billets.

My leg - where the shrapnel had got in twelve months previously - started to swell up, as it was poisoned through long exposure in the trenches. I was very ill and delirious and was taken in a Red Cross Motor Ambulance to the big hospital on the outskirts of Abbeville. When I took sick I was in billets on the top storey of an old barn. They had to put me on a stretcher and lower it down through a large outer door in the ambulance below. this ambulance was driven by a girl driver.

The Doctors at Abbeville diagnosed my case as thrombosis of the right leg.

German prisoners waited on us in hospital and I got some very good souvenirs from them, which they made in their spare time - a small carved wooden tank, paper knives, etc.

I used to give them my cigarette issue in exchange for souvenirs.

After I left our Battalion, our dances lapsed for a week until another pianist was secured from the 43rd Battalion. Several of my pals used to walk into Abbeville to hospital to see me, but they all returned to Australia before I did.

Abbeville was the hospital that was bombed several times during the war and many of the nurses were killed or wounded.

HOSPITAL ENGLAND

I spent four weeks in Abbeville Hospital and was then sent by train to Wimereux Hospital near Boulogne. I had previously been in this hospital after the Battle of Ypres. Stayed here two days and on the 18th April, 1919, (Good Friday) I was carried on a stretcher by German prisoners to the Hospital Ship "St. Andrew", crossed the Channel to Dover and then went by Hospital train to Dartford, where I was admitted to Hospital. I had also previously been in this hospital.

Our names, Battalion, etc. were written up at the head of our beds. The first morning I was there, the Sister In Charge -Sister Mares- whose father was for many years ago C.P.S. (? Chief Practising Surgeon?) at Grafton, asked me if I came from Grafton and I said I did. It appears she knew my parents and several of the old Grafton people.

I remained here a month and was then able to get about on crutches. Used to go into Dartford for walks and many motor rides. Once I was fortunate enough to be included in the Duchess of Windsor's motor party.

We had never-to-be-forgotten visits from here to London. On the first occasion, thirty of us went to London by train and then took train to Windsor (twenty miles away). On arrival at Windsor Station we were met by buses and taken to the castle where we were received at the gates by the Keeper of the Castle and the guards in their quaint costumes. Spent the whole day inspecting the castle. The magnificence of it is beyond description. Saw the bed the Kaiser had slept in when he came over for King Edward's funeral in 1910, and many other interesting things. One of the rooms contained all the curios and souvenirs that the present King George V brought back from Australia when he visited as Duke of York in 1900 to open the first Commonwealth Parliament.

The stuffed kangaroos, boomerangs, etc. made us think of home.

We had dinner in Queen Victoria's dining room. Also saw the wonderful St George's Chapel and the magnificent mausoleum which contains the tombs of the Prince Consort and Queen Victoria.

Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, received us and shook hands with us and also autographed our cards of admission to the castle which had the King's Crown on them and signed by the Lord Chamberlain -Sandhurst. We returned to Dartford after a really splendid day.

The next occasion we visited London from here was to view the great Victory March through London of the Dominion Troops on 3rd May, 1919.

We went up by motor buses and had excellent seats to view the march in front of Buckingham Palace - only about fifty yards from the dais where the King, Queen, Prince of Wales and other members of the Royal Family were. We were afterwards taken and given lunch, then to a theatre and after tea, motored back to the hospital.

LAST LEAVE IN ENGLAND

On 5th May, 1919, we left Dartford by train and went, via London. to Weymouth where I was sent to the Convalescent Hospital at Monte Video Camp. Stayed here a fortnight and was then given fourteen days leave.

Left Weymouth and took train to London.

Stayed there a day and then went by train to Winchester (the ancient capital of England - before London became capital) and saw the great Cathedral containing the Black Prince's tomb, the Palace and the Castle.

Then went up to Oxford where I stayed two days as the guest of the Reverend and Mrs D. J. Collins. Mr Collins was a Padre at the War and after the Armistice he went to Oxford to study for his B.A. Degree and Mrs Collins left South Grafton and went to England to be with him. He had a nice little cottage near the river. Oxford is the greatest seat of learning in the world - a city of colleges and churches.

Saw through several of the famous colleges _ Magdalene, etc. -then took train back to Eton where we were shown through this great and famous school. The boys were attired in their quaint dress. We saw, carved on the desks, the names of the great men who were educated there (Captain Scott, etc.) - their names being carved in the desks by themselves when they were attending school there.

Next day went up to Stratford-on-Avon and saw the tomb of Shakespeare in Holy Trinity Church. Hundreds of people were visiting it this day, including a great number of Americans and we had to wait our turn and file past in a queue. Saw Ann Hathaway's house, the Sheldonian Theatre and Marie Corelli's home.

Then returned to London and took train to Canterbury and saw through this great and ancient Cathedral. Also visited St. Martin's Church which is the oldest Christian Church extant in England.

Whilst at Canterbury we saw the ruins of the first German Zeppelin which was brought down in England.

Returned to London and then went across to Ireland again by the same route as the previous time. Stayed a day in Dublin and then took train to Killarney. I palled up with an American soldier and we had an enjoyable three days here.

Saw all the famous sights and went all over the lakes in boats, shooting the rapids, etc. It was midsummer and everything was green. No wonder Ireland is called the Emerald Isle.

The fresh bread, butter, potatoes, etc. were great. We saw them cutting peat blocks in the bogs and sat before a peat fire. The Irish people were also very good and kind to us.

returned to Dublin and took train north to Belfast. This is the largest city in Ireland and a fine place it is too. (Seems as if he picked up the idiom while there.) Saw through the largest shipbuilding yards in the world (Harland and Woooofs.)

The "Majestic" (40,000 tons) was in the stocks being built while we were there.

The Belfast City Hall is a magnificent building.

Came back to Dublin and then took steamer across to England and train to London.

Went several nights to the Opera at Covent garden Theatre and had the great privilege of hearing Madame Melba sing in the Opera of "Faust".

On this occasion, I formed up in a queue outside the Opera at eight o'clock in the morning and waited till the doors opened at 6 p.m.. The performance starting at 8.30 p.m.

It was a very interesting day and pleasantly spent. We bought boxes from the Covent Garden Market boys to sit on and it was an unwritten law that if one went away for lunch, etc. no one would "jump" another one's place.

The street musicians put on records of Melba on their gramophones and every half hour or so the newsboys would sell us the latest editions of the papers. At 4 p.m. Melba arrived at the stage entrance in her car and made a speech to us. It was a wonderful and memorable occasion.

One Sunday afternoon, I also heard Madame Clara Butt sing in the great Albert Hall, London, which seats 11,000 people. It cost one shilling.

Next day went and saw the Crystal Palace, a huge building built of glass. A lot of German prisoners were interned here during the War.

Then went and saw the British Museum (most of the treasures were removed to safety against damage from air bombs) the Kensington Museum, the Art Gallery and Bow Street Church with its famous bells, associated with the legend of Dick Whittington and his cat.

Also saw the monument commemorating the great fire of London, and the only wooden house in London.

Also visited Carlyle's house in Chelsea.

London is a wonderful city of 7,000,000 inhabitants and it would take months to see everything interesting in it.

Next day I saw the Prince of Wales perform the ceremony of the Trooping Of The Colours in Hyde Park.

My leave was now up and next day I returned to Weymouth.

LEAVE ENGLAND FOR AUSTRALIA

After I returned from leave, spent a few happy weeks at Weymouth hospital.

Every night the nurses and doctors used to have private dances and I was their pianist, The night before I left England for Australia, they gave me a little send-off and presented me with a very nice pocket wallet.

the Doctors often used to take me for motor rides to the various camps which they visited and one day we had a picnic to the Upway Wishing Well.

On June 16th, 1919 we left Weymouth by train and travelled through the beautiful south of England, arriving at Plymouth that night. Next morning, we boarded the Ormonde and that afternoon set sail and the shores of England were soon out of sight. The Ormonde was a fine new steamer of 15,000 tons and had not been altered to a troop ship. We had 2164 persons aboard, quite a number being hospital and cot cases. Included in this number were 145 wives of Australian soldiers coming out to Australia.

What a contrast going over to the war in the troopship Kyarra was to coming home in the Ormonde . On the Ormonde I was in a four berth cabin on the top deck with port holes, electric fans, with a fine bunk (with sheets , etc.) and the food, served in large dining saloons (with stewards to wait on us) was excellent.

We had the whole run of the steamer - no part of the ship was out of bounds. The first few weeks on the boat I wasn't able to get about much on account of my leg and had to go to the ship's surgery every morning to have it treated.

We had a delightful and very pleasant trip back to Australia, the only disappointment being that we returned via the Cape the same way as we went over. We were a hospital ship with a lot of serious cases aboard and we came this way to avoid the heat of the Red Sea.

Our first port of call was Capetown where we spent two happy days. I sent a cable home from here.

Then called at Durban where we were again welcomed and entertained by these hospitable people. Only had one day her this time. Then sailed across the ocean and after fifteen days arrived at Fremantle and set foot on Australian soil again. We were given a rousing reception her and entertained to tea and motor rides up to Perth. The Post Office here was besieged with the men sending telegrams home.

Left Fremantle next morning and after another calm trip across the Great Australian Bight, arrived at the beautiful city of Adelaide.

Here we were again feted and next day left for Melbourne where we arrived after two day's journey.

Cars met the steamer at Port Melbourne and we were taken to private houses for lunch.

In the afternoon we were taken for a long car drive then back to tea and afterwards, Her Majesty's Theatre where we witnessed a performance of "Going Up", having seats in the reserved circle.

Then, after supper, we were driven back to the steamer again. By now, over 1,000 of the troops had left the steamer, some at Westralia, some at Adelaide and Melbourne.

The Tasmanians also got off here as we were not calling at Hobart.

Left Melbourne and continued the last part of the journey, the sea being very rough. The night before we arrived at Sydney we could not sleep and were on deck most of the night.

Early one morning, we sighted Sydney Lighthouse and the lights of Coogee and Bondi soon came into view.

We entered the Harbour at about seven in the morning and shall never forget the welcome we received.

The big steamers in the harbour and the ferry boats blew their whistles continually.

We anchored in Watson's Bay and the Pilot and Doctors came on board and after giving our ship's clean bill of health, we proceeded up the harbour to Woolloomooloo Bay.

We then filed off the steamer and were given a great welcome back.

It was two years and nine months since I had left Australia.

My relatives and friends were there to meet me and I was then taken to Randwick Hospital where I remained seven weeks before being discharged.

had a very happy time here.

We had free tram and rail passes and nearly every night were taken to some theatre or picture show.

I was finally discharged from the Army as "Medically Unfit" (being granted a War Pension) on 26 the September, 1919.

 

 

 

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Digger History:  an unofficial history of the Australian & New Zealand Armed Forces